Melanoma - a malignant, rapidly metastasizing tumor of the skin (less mucous membranes of the brain and retina of the eye) that occurs at any age and growing of skin cells that synthesize melanin (melanocytes).Melanoma is a type of cancer lesions of the skin and in comparison with other types of skin cancer (basal cell and squamous tumors), is quite rare.The incidence of melanoma leaves about 15% of all cases of cancer of the skin.In more than 90%, the tumor detected on the skin of the face, torso and legs, with the majority of cases are women.
Melanoma is considered the most aggressive of all cancers because it can virtually lightning grow multiple layers of the skin (incidentally destroying it) and spread further through the blood and lymphatic vessels in the internal organs (liver, brain, lungs), where he developed the centersits growth (metastases)
Causes of melanoma
Provoking factors of this malignancy can serve as scars or sores in places fold limbs, and severe sunburn.M
Symptoms of melanoma
development of melanoma does not necessarily occur at the site of the nevus (birthmark) or birthmarks.Asymmetric, painted in dark colors education can appear anywhere in the completely clean the skin, on which there are - or dark spots.
However, most frequently to malignancy (malignancy) tend to dark - brown, dark - gray or black nevi.The hallmark symptom of melanoma is the lack of vegetation on the hair nevus.Originally, almost never nevus does not rise above the surface of the skin.Over time, lentigo changes its color and appears pinkish - red, white or gray tumor.This transformation is the first sign of melanoma.
the later stages of the following signs of melanoma : near the tumor appear numerous pigmented spots observed ulceration, pain, bleeding, itching.The average size of six melanoma begins millimeters in diameter.The rate of metastasis and growth of the tumor is unpredictable.
sign of melanoma is a type of surface it slow growth for several years.A sign of skin cancer is a nodular rapid growth.Hutchinson freckle or malignant lentigo, the most typical of the elderly.Peripheral lentigines (a type of melanoma), the most typical for people with dark skin
stages of melanoma
most important prognostic factor in the treatment of this disease is the staging of melanoma.When the first and the second stage - the tumor is localized in the primary focus, which gives 99% guarantee of a positive outcome of the treatment.The third step is when spread metastases to regional lymph nodes.Successfully treat this stage of skin cancer is possible only in 50% of cases.If a patient is diagnosed melanoma the fourth stage - a positive prognosis is far less optimistic.Fortunately, many patients, skin cancer is most often diagnosed in the first and second stages, making it more likely to ensure successful treatment
First, we should pay attention to any suspicious appearance of skin lesions.When the first symptoms of melanoma of the skin, the process of diagnosis of the disease begins with a detailed survey of the behavior of the patient and the timing of the appearance of suspicious spots.After history data have been collected, for the diagnosis of melanoma conduct laboratory tests, the main of which is the skin biopsy.
For proper diagnosis of metastatic melanoma tumors used aspiration biopsy, chest X-rays, surgical lymph node biopsy, CT and magnetic - resonance imaging of the whole body.To perform this type of diagnostic needs already confirmed diagnosis of melanoma , based on the results of the biopsy of local tumors and tumor seals observed in the lymph nodes
Treatment of melanoma
first stage .Displaying surgical excision of melanoma with the capture of the limits of healthy tissues, and the number leaving healthy skin depends on the depth of penetration of the formation.Removing located near melanoma lymph nodes may not improve survival in patients with melanoma of the first stage.
second stage .In the case of a suspected tumor lesion located near the sentinel lymph node biopsy shows performance of one of them.If the lesion is confirmed, the removal is carried out without exception lymph nodes art.Melanoma second step can be an additional treatment with interferon alpha to reduce the likelihood of disease recurrence.
third stage .At this stage, in addition to the excision of the tumor itself, carried out without the removal of all exceptions to the nearby lymph nodes.If the patient is more melanomas, then delete them mandatory to all.If you can not do it directly into the tumor injections of interferon and BCG.In the affected area shows a complete application of radiation therapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy.
fourth stage .Patients with stage four melanoma completely cure is not possible.Promptly removed causing discomfort large tumor nodules in some cases, removed from the visceral metastases.Some patients show chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
Recurrent melanoma .Treatment depends on the type of relapse, and primary treatment of the original tumor stage.At relapse in lymph nodes demonstrated their surgical excision.In the case of local recurrence, surgery is shown similar to the treatment of primary melanoma.