May
29
23:01
Circulatory system diseases

Nevus - treatment and removal

Nevus - treatment and removal

nevus photo nevus (birthmark, mole) - benign tumor that occurs in the embryonic period due to migration melanoblast (precursor pigment cells) from neuroectodermal tube into the epidermis (basallayer).The study of this pathology skin is held in connection with the fact that quite often, the site acquired or congenital nevus benign, developing very serious malignancy called melanoma.What

- either acquired or congenital nevoid education are present in almost all people (more than 90% of the population).Number nevi in ​​humans ranges from three to one hundred (often about twenty), with age their amount is usually increased.Reborn in melanoma nevi can not do everything, so they are divided into melanomoneopasnye and melanomoopasnye.

Melanomoneopasnye nevi occur more frequently (okolo90%) than melonomoopasnye, and localization of the lesions, the patient's age and other anatomical data, data nevi are no different.Various radiological, mechanical, physical and other injuries (su

ch as repeated and acute), can trigger the conversion of certain types of nevi to melanoma.In this regard, there is a strict contraindications as a biopsy of suspect cell skin, and cosmetic treatment using various traumatic methods (cryotherapy, electrocautery, partial removal, chemical agents, etc.).According to the statistics, the percentage of people with melanoma after previous injury benign nevus, varies from 20 to 80%

Border pigmented nevus

This is a black or dark - brown flat unit with a dry smooth surface with a diameter of ten millimeters, growing atboundary of the dermis and epidermis.For this educational feature is the increased activity of melanocytes (pigment cells).In some cases, the boundary nevus looks like a spot with irregular or rounded wavy edges.Boundary nevus can be placed on the skin of the trunk, neck, face, as a permanent localization of education have not.Pigmented nevi, located on the skin of the genitals, palms and soles, are almost always border.Most often, the border is a congenital nevus formation, but frequently observed its appearance in the early years / months of life and during puberty.An important diagnostic hallmark of the boundary pigmentary nevus - a complete lack of hair on its surface.Edge Pigment nevus should be differentiated from cavernous hemangioma and seborrheic keratomas.The most dangerous are the following border nevi: located in the perianal region, on the nail bed, on the soles of the feet and systematically traumatizing.Reliable prevention of melanoma is the timely removal of these nevi sites.Balneological and thermal treatment of a variety of related chronic diseases play a large role in the risk of developing melanoma

The blue nevus

The blue nevus (nevus of Jadassohn-Tiche) - bluish or dark - blue rounded unit clearly delineated from the surrounding skin,having a dense elastic consistency and a smooth hairless surface.Blue (blue) color is caused by the formation of a significant accumulation in the deeper layers of the dermis melanin.In most cases, the unit size is not more than five millimeters.Most often, blue nevi located on the buttocks, legs, face and a single form.Blue nevus can occur in all age and ethnic groups, but often found in middle-aged women.According to its clinical signs, blue nevus quite difficult to distinguish from the border of pigment nevus, but thanks to features such as blue or blue color, infiltrovannost delineated hemispherical shape and the appearance at a later age, the possibility of differential diagnosis.Melanoma in situ blue nevus is extremely rare, but this nevus still belong to the group melanomoopasnyh

giant pigmented nevus

This kind of education is always an innate character.As the child grows, it grows in size, sometimes reaching an enormous size, and can cover a large part of the neck, trunk, or other areas of the skin.The surface of the giant pigment nevus often warty, bumpy, covered with deep cracks.The color of this education varies from black to gray, in different parts of its color uniform.Going giant pigment nevus in the malignancy occurs in 2-10% of cases.In case of suspicion of blue nevi and pigmented border, especially if they are frequently traumatized and available insolation areas of the skin, treatment strategy reduces to a complete abandonment of traumatic treatments: cryotherapy, electrocautery, incomplete surgical excision and application of various caustic solutions.If necessary, shown holding economical surgical excision hearth together with the surrounding skin (5 mm in all directions from the conventional boundaries nevus), which is quite sufficient for the prevention of melanoma.Giant nevi, which bring patients great cosmetic inconvenience excised stages, followed by skin plasty

Nevus of Ota (okulodermalny melanotsitoz)

usually large unilateral pigmentary nevi, located on the face around the nose, cheeks and forehead.Clinically observed dark - brown pigmentation in different parts of the eye: iris, sclera, conjunctiva.At the same time it revealed a massive blue - black pigment nevus on the upper jaw, cheek or malar area.Very rarely affects the mucous membranes of the nose, larynx, pharynx, soft palate, and the red border of the lips.Most often, women are susceptible to okulodermalnomu melanotsitozu.In most cases, nevus of Ota is a congenital, but there are cases of this education both in early childhood and in adolescence.Besides cosmetic inconveniences, it does not cause any disturbances, but still isolated cases known where its place developing melanoma.Even more rare is a nevus of Ito, localized in the deltoid muscle, as well as blade and supraclavicular areas

Melanosis Dyubreya

It nevoid education has undeniable connection with melanoma.Melanosis Dyubreya usually begins with the appearance of small brown spots, which gradually spread around the periphery.Mature focus of education is uneven dark - brown surface with fuzzy boundaries.Within chamber already formed there are areas of different color (bluish, gray, black, brown), and drawing on the skin by the fireplace remains, however, becomes more coarse.May appear elements resembling senile wart.Perhaps the development of hyperkeratosis, atrophy and pappilomatoza flat surface.On the periphery of the hearth is present increased pigmentation.Inflammatory manifestations are extremely rare.In most cases, there is one melanose Dyubreya hearth.The most typical localization: face (forehead, nose, nasolabial area, cheeks), exposed skin;at least - the scalp and neck.Melanosis Dyubreya, due to the fact that only affects older people, referred to as senile dermatosis.

Differential diagnosis is carried out with a pigmented basal cell carcinoma, large seborrheic keratomas and some forms of nevi.Reasons malignancy melanosis Dyubreya still not been established, therefore considered to be the beginning of a push of invasive tumor growth and insolation injury.Tactics of treatment for melanosis Dyubreya significantly different from the tactics employed to treat melonomoopasnyh nevi.It is unacceptable to leave the patient without an active treatment, it is possible in principle in other melanomoopasnyh nevi (if patients were pre-warned about the danger of injury).Another difference lies in the fact that the extensive surgical excision of education, given that it is primarily located on the face, is associated with significant cosmetic and technical difficulties, especially in the centers of large dimensions.In some cases, excision of large lesions on any - any part of the body ends plastics displaced from another part of the body flaps

papillomatous nevus

This type of education is most common on the scalp, but can occur anywhere on the skin.Papillomatous nevus is bumpy and uneven surface large enough (a few centimeters), the color range varies from brownish (rarely black or dark - brown) to the color of the normal skin.As fibroepithelial, papillomatous nevi often be laced hair.After the injury, papillomatous nevus inflamed.Due to the localization of the education in the face and other open areas of skin, patients appears obsessive desire to get rid of the apparent cosmetic defect that it is possible to carry out, thanks to a specialized cosmetic treatment

fibroepithelial nevus

This nevus refers to a group nevoid lesionsand melanomoneopasnyh nevi.Fibroepithelial nevus with retinitis intradermal nevi are the most common nevoid formations on the skin of a person, and the most frequent cause of treatment to the surgeon.This education can occur in different stages of fetal development and after birth.The preferential localization - on the trunk and face, but can occur anywhere on the skin.The number of formations and ranges from one to ten.Fibroepithelial nevus - a painless soft hemispherical / myagkoellastichnoe education, which rises above the level of the skin, in diameter by three millimeters or more (usually the size of the beans).By fibroepithelial nevus color range can be from dark - brown (bluish - violet) to pinkish - red or normal skin color.Form of education are usually perfectly round and smooth surface and smooth (can be riddled with bristly and vellus hair).In most cases, the inflammatory manifestation around fibroepithelial nevus is observed in rare cases, after the trauma (upon impact, when shaving the face), it is possible to inflammation, as evidenced by the characteristic inflammatory whisk on the circumference.In the absence of inflammation, diagnosis fibroepithelial nevus presents no difficulty.Features of the blue border, and the pigment nevi: a frequent presence of hair, the shape, the plurality of color less saturated

verrucous nevus

This type of nevi is a clinical variant of papillomatous nevus.Its surface is much more bumpy, riddled with deep cracks and folds, and in the most severe cases has the form of "cabbage".Verrucous nevus usually more pigmented and significantly above the surface of the skin.Most often it occurs in the form of a single chamber.Recognition verrucous nevus does not present much difficulty, but sometimes, if it is small, this education can be mistaken for common giant wart.The exact history (slow growing, there is an early childhood or birth, the frequent presence of hairs on the surface, a single center) help to properly recognize verrucous nevus.Tactics of treatment does not differ from the treatment of papillomatous nevus

intradermal nevi

This type is also known as nevi ordinary birthmark, which can be located on the mucous membranes and skin, and is observed in almost all people.Typically, this congenital nevi with brown pigmentation.For most people, the presence of birthmarks do not cause any inconvenience cosmetic

Nevus Sutton

is a red - brown oval or round bundle of 4-5 mm in diameter, surrounded by a depigmented halo, which is slightly raised above the skin.Diameter depigmented usually in two - three times the diameter of the nodule.Nevus Sutton often multiple and preferentially localized on the hands and body (rarely on the face).Often, this is subject to the formation of spontaneous regression.Nevus Seton is so typical that does not cause any diagnostic difficulties.Even after the injury, the development of melanoma in its place there is no

Mongolian spot

This irregularly shaped brownish or bluish round the hearth, from 5 to 6 cm in diameter, which is located only in the sacro - lumbar region.Mongolian spot is almost always congenital education, in most cases, prone to spontaneous disappearance even in childhood.In place of the Mongolian spot of melanoma is no specific treatment and it does not need

dysplastic nevi

This occurs on a clean skin pigmented lesions acquired represented a disorderly proliferation of melanocytes.Dysplastic nevi has characteristic histological and clinical features that distinguish it from nevokletochnyh acquired nevi.This nevus positioned as superficial spreading melanoma precursor.Visually, dysplastic nevi is a slightly raised above the skin is dark - brown or reddish - brown pigmented spots of irregular shape.Particular attention these formations attracted to their unusual appearance and by transferring them by inheritance.They are usually more than ordinary moles and reach a diameter of five to twelve millimeters.They also differ in their localization: most often occur in areas of skin that are covered by clothing (breasts, buttocks and so on.), Can be observed on the scalp.Usually people present on the body to ten moles, while the number of dysplastic nevi can be one hundred or more.Common nevi in ​​most cases occur during the onset of maturity, whereas dysplastic may occur throughout almost the entire life

By nevoid (like nevus) entities other etiologies include :

Vascular nevi

This anomaly of the capillaries of the dermis,which manifests itself as a red - brown or light - pink spots.If vascular nevus is located in the center of the forehead and the back of the head or not combined with other developmental disabilities, with age often, he blanches.For single-sided or asymmetric localization (in the limbs or face), vascular nevus is a manifestation of Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome, or syndrome Sturge-Weber.With age, usually the nevus darkens the surface is raised above the skin becomes bumpy

capillary hemangioma

It is also called "strawberry nevus" - is the most common congenital vascular tumor.She begins to develop one / several pinkish papules that grow rapidly and are lobed, acquiring color from bright - red to dark - blue.In most cases, capillary hemangiomas occur in the second - the fifth week of life.For seven years, at about 70% of children these structures disappear spontaneously without conducting any - any treatment.In cases where rapid growth and location of the tumor leads to impaired breathing or vision, shows the introduction of intralesional corticosteroids, as well as conducting laser therapy, cryoablation, or surgical excision

Treatment of pigmented tumors

All kinds of pigmented skin lesions require carefulattention.

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