melasma - a benign hyperpigmentation of the skin, usually manifests itself in small brown patches on the skin swollen face and affects the cheeks, forehead, nose and the area of skin between the nose and upper lip.The appearance of hyperpigmented areas commonly seen in women using oral contraceptives and pregnancy.Several less melasma develops in women who are taking provocative increased sensitivity of the skin medicated preparations
Melasma - causes of
Most experts associated with the development of melasma with pregnancy, so that specific spots on the face of pregnant women have received the name - "mask of pregnancy."Usually after childbirth areas of hyperpigmentation disappear on their own.
However, melasma is given not only to women during childbearing, and not all people it disappears on its own.Abnormal pigmentation, besides genetic can be triggered by the following factors:
- taking certain medications - hormonal agents, certain antibiotics and other groups.
- Excessive exposure to ultraviolet rays, especially in the absence of the protection of sensitive skin special creams.Most often it concerns owners fonotipov light skin.Melanin - the pigment that protects the skin from the damaging effects of ultraviolet rays it, and manifests itself in the form of sunburn in response to the impact on the skin to ultraviolet rays.However, in the case of melasma on the above and following reasons, the skin begins to react to solar radiation is too much to synthesize increased amounts of melanin and lead to facial pigmented spots
- Various hormonal changes, both in connection with pregnancy andfor other reasons
Various cosmetic products may also lead to enhanced development in specific areas of the coloring pigment.In some cases, the result is melasma allergies to cosmetics.
-type melasma Hyperpigmentation may occur in the event of certain failure in the adequate thyroid.
are three types of melasma :
- dermal type.For this type of characteristic light brown spots with fuzzy borders.Dermal type treatable with great difficulty
- epidermal type.This type appears dark brown spots with clear boundaries that are easily identified even in the weak rays of light.This type of melasma can be treated quite successfully
- Mixed.For this type is characterized by non-uniform pigmentation spots melasma - seen as a bright spot and dark tones.Treatment of mixed type lends itself, with some areas of the skin react worse and others better
Melasma - treatment
If melasma was triggered by pregnancy, childbirth and after termination of lactation, pigmented spots usually fade and disappear on their own soon.But in cases where melasma developed due to other causes, usually requires fairly long treatment.
first therapeutic line is the use of external funds, striking on the skin to block the production of melanin, is: different masking agents (creams, correctors and others.) Sunscreens with a level of protection of at least SPF 50. Slightly, butalso help prevent hyperpigmentation protective headgear (veil, hats, caps, etc.).Used for skin lightening agents can be divided into lightening (remove pigmentation already present), and blocks the synthesis of melanin (to prevent the development of new age spots).
second therapeutic line is more invasive, requires a more serious relationship and costly.A good therapeutic effect is achieved only after a combination therapy that includes phototherapy, laser therapy and chemical peels.
In addition, be sure to use the following therapeutic and preventive measures:
- Mandatory discontinuation of contraceptive hormonal methods
- Not recommended the use of food additives and food as well as medication with a photosensitizing effect
- Throughout the year, the skinrecommended applying sunscreen with a wide range of protective factors
- for cosmetic cleansing of the skin should not use aggressive cosmetics
- should avoid excessive dryness of the skin regularly their moisturizing
To reduce hyperpigmentation use the following tools, the effect of which is directedfor inhibition of melanin: topical corticosteroids, azelaic acid, hydroquinone (contraindicated in pregnancy), kojic acid.
Besides successfully applied the so-called peeling method of treating melasma, which is the use of special chemicals (topical retinoids, salicylic acid, and lactic acid glikoevaya).
In conclusion, we emphasize that any of the above methods of treatment of melasma must necessarily take place under the supervision of a qualified expert in this field, namely - a dermatologist or cosmetologist dermatol.