Chloasma - a focal hyperpigmentation of the skin, which has clear boundaries and are usually located on the face.Often, chloasma is multiple in nature and has the form of brownish spots, brown or light brown.
Chloasma is inherently acquired spots, formed as a result of excess fat in the area delineated dermis and epidermis pigment melanin.At the secondary hyperpigmentation and age, as well as along with freckles, chloasma is the most frequent violations of adequate skin pigmentation.In women, these skin manifestations occur much more frequently.
Chloasma - causes of
Today, modern dermatology unable to give exact causes of chloasma.Most of exploring this phenomenon scientists agree that the excessive deposition of melanin, which causes the development and chloasma, due to the presence in the body a variety of metabolic and endocrine disorders.This view is confirmed by the frequent diagnosis of chloasma in people with chronic liver disease (cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis, viral hep
addition contributes to the development of chloasma oral contraceptives, as well as excessive exposure to the skin artificial sources of UV (solariums, etc..) And direct sunlight.
Chloasma - symptoms and effects
Typically, chloasma is manifested in the form of increased pigmentation delimited area of skin is rough and clear boundaries, with no towering above the surrounding skin.Chloasma Color ranges from brown-brown to light brown.Data size of pigmented lesions can range from the very small (up to one centimeter in diameter) to the truly enormous (affected large areas of the skin).
chloasma most often develops on the skin face: periorbital area, cheeks, nose, upper lip and forehead.On the skin of the chin, and the age, age spots usually not observed.Very rarely chloasma occurs on the chest, inner thighs and the abdomen.
Brown spots usually have isolated a single character, but can sometimes be multiple and in the case of very close proximity to each other - to blend in rather extensive pigmented area.Any soreness or itching, chloasma are not accompanied.The only subjective feeling is the psychological and aesthetic discomfort.
Separately isolated pigment perioral dermatosis and perioral chloasma girls who are mainly observed in women.For these two diseases characterized by the appearance of brown spots symmetrical around the mouth.They have a long duration, over time, a change in intensity of pigmentation, with the advent of similar pigmented lesions on the skin of the chin and the nasolabial folds.
dyschromia (pigment line) also applies to chloasma and has a broad view (up to 10cm) pigmented bands passing through the forehead, cheek, and sometimes reaching up to the side of the neck.This option is usually chloasma is the initial symptom of any serious damage to the nervous system (a syphilis, syringomyelia, Parkinson's disease, brain tumors, and so on.).
In some Asian countries is quite common, so-called "bronze chloasma", which received its name due to the specific bronze color.And bronze chloasma may occur like living in the region, the Europeans and the natives (indigenous people).However, the most noteworthy is that in the case of Europeans move home, painting chloasma gradually lose their intensity and soon the disease is completely cured spontaneously.
chloasma Diagnosis is based on preliminary visual inspection and survey of the patient, in which the dermatologist will be able to eliminate the post-inflammatory and innate character of the development of pigmentation.To determine the depth and extent of chloasma appointed dermatoscopy and Siascopy.Additional surveys in identifying chloasma include: liver ultrasound, ultrasound of the abdominal cavity of some, gastroscopy, analysis on a dysbacteriosis, coprogram, liver biochemical tests.Women, in order to avoid any genitourinary diseases should undergo a mandatory consultation of the gynecologist.Also be sure to differentiate chloasma such dermatologic diseases as a giant pigmented nevus, pigmented nevus border, Mongolian spot, professional and secondary hyperpigmentation melasma.
Chloasma - treatment
Primarily all patients with chloasma advised to avoid excessive exposure of the skin to ultraviolet rays, and if that still escape for good reasons does not work, be sure to use sunscreen with a protection level of at least SPF 30. If necessary, the correction of the revealed hormonal and metabolic disorders.To normalize the metabolism of melanin held vitamin: B vitamins, riboflavin, folic acid and ascorbic.
Unfortunately, at the moment of specific methods for removing chloasma or correction methods of pigment metabolism, it is not developed.Therefore, there is usually limited to the treatment of chloasma cosmetology methods, the effect of which is to reduce the intensity of pigmentation.For this purpose two directions - in the area of peeling pigmentation stratum corneum and a decrease in the skin produce melanin.
to exfoliate using the following tools: glycolic acid, alpha-hydroxy acids, lactic acid, citric acid.These substances are used for so-called chemical peels.It is enough to give a good therapeutic effect, such as a hardware methods cryotherapy, laser peels, dermabrasion.Also to eliminate chloasma and other pigmentations successfully used bleaching mesotherapy cocktails cryomassage, cosmetology and laser resurfacing.To normalize the pass in the skin metabolism is carried biorevitalization skin with hyaluronic acid.
To reduce melanin formation used the following means: derivatives of vitamin C, inhibitors of melanin synthesis in melanocytes (hydroquinone, azelaic acid), tyrosinase inhibitors (arbutin, kojic acid).Despite the fact that most of these toxic substances is sufficient (especially hydroquinone), because of the good therapeutic effect of their use continues.In pure form, these funds are not used, and included in an integrated structure of such bleaching ointments and creams as a 5% hydroquinone ointment Ahremin, chalk and so on. A good bleaching action the white sedimentary mercury and sulfur ointment.
If observed in pregnancy chloasma, treatment is better not to have been active in this period may be common, which is related to hormonal changes in the female body, which gradually will take place after birth alone.