algomenoreya - is one of the disorders of menstrual function, manifested by pain of varying intensity during menstruation.The name of the disorder comes from the Greek words "algos" - pain, "menorrhea" - a monthly expiration (menstruation).
characteristic localization of pain in algomenoree - the abdomen, the sacrum, lumbar pain sometimes radiates to the hips.
nature of pain, usually drawing, cramping, stabbing or aching.The appearance of pain happens usually, the first day of menstruation, but it is possible and continued for several days.
algomenoree classified into primary and secondary.Each of them has different causes, including inflammatory infectious processes in the pelvic organs, anomalies of development of endometriosis.
Also, there are a number of factors that are indirectly related to the emergence of algomenoree.They do not call it directly, but contribute to the emergence of pain during menstruation, such as chronic stress, emotional and physical exhaustion, n
Causes of pain during menstruation are very diverse.Because of their establishment is necessary to conduct a number of surveys as gynecological and general clinical and carefully collect the history, to take into account the totality of all possible factors that could have an impact on the female body and cause undesired operation.
Primary algomenoreya usually common among teenage girls and women under the age of 30 years.A common cause of primary algomenoree is a hormonal imbalance between endorphins and prostaglandins.
Increasing the concentration of prostaglandin F2-alpha can cause vasoconstriction and ischemic pain in the myometrium, and sometimes headaches that are frequent companions of disorders of menstruation.
vasoconstriction is also possible not only to the myometrium, but also the rest of the periphery of the small vessels, because of higher levels of norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine.This may reduce the blood supply to the skin, so that there is pallor of the face and extremities.Along with this may be an increase in heart rate.Constipation may also disturb the consequent narrowing of the blood vessels of the intestine.
Sometimes the opposite option, when the nature of the prevailing disorders associated with the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system.Hormonal changes characteristic of this case - increase the level of serotonin, which is found mainly in the cerebrospinal fluid.In this case, the swelling can occur, especially on the face, due to the swelling and there may be a slight increase in weight.Also the heart rate decreases, and vice versa peristalsis increases, which can cause diarrhea.
also cause primary algomenoree may serve as developmental abnormalities of the pelvic organs, such as the underdevelopment of the uterus, its imperforate and anterior or posterior bend.In this case, the hindered blood flow leads to its accumulation in the uterus, which in turn causes contractions of the muscle layer of the uterus, accompanied by cramping pains.The problem of improper arrangement of the pelvic organs or anomalies of their development is often identified only with the onset of puberty and the appearance of the first menstruation.Before that age, they often go unnoticed because they do not show any symptoms.
Another common cause is primary algomenoree endometriosis.In this disease lining of the uterus grows outside the uterine cavity, while continuing to operate cyclically, as the endometrium, which is in its place.Cells typical of the endometrium can grow on the peritoneum, liver and kidney capsule, the surface of the ovary, and within them (the endometrial cysts are formed).Especially painful periods often causes internal endometriosis - adenomyosis.In this case, the endometrium grows into the muscle layer of the uterus.
not less frequently algomenoree primary cause pathology of the central nervous system, which reduces the pain threshold and increases the overall sensitivity to pain.
Less algomenoree primary cause of the disease could be related to a violation of the connective tissue.In this case, problems with blood vessels can provoke the appearance of pain.
should also mention the reasons for secondary algomenoree.In contrast to the primary algomenoree, the disorder is more prevalent in older women, and is more common after 30-35 years.One of the causes of secondary algomenoree - adhesions in the pelvic organs.They can appear after any surgical procedure in the abdominal cavity and the pelvic cavity, in cases where an individual has a tendency to adhesion.
also cause adhesive processes may be transferred earlier inflammation of the pelvic organs.
Another common cause of secondary algomenoree - ovarian tumor formation and fibromatous nodes in the myometrium, and polyps of the uterus.Often, the presence of such pathology, menses are not only painful, but also abundant.In such cases, we are talking about dysfunctional bleeding.
also cause secondary algomenoree can become endometriosis.
Violate blood flow and provoke the appearance of pain during menstruation, intrauterine adhesions (adhesions).
Another common cause of secondary algomenoree - infectious inflammation of the pelvic organs.
should also note the influence of intrauterine contraception on menstrual function.Many women say the emergence algomenoree more heavy and prolonged menstruation, after the installation of non-hormonal intrauterine contraceptive.
algomenoree Symptoms vary, depending on its type - it is primary or secondary.Also, the symptoms shared by the degree of severity of algomenoree - mild, moderate and severe.
Mild currents algomenoreya manifested pain of moderate intensity, short duration of time.Basically pain in the pelvic area, lumbar and / or sacral worried about the first day of menstruation, sometimes painful sensations appear a few hours before its start.In general, mild algomenoree does not violate the general condition and transferred easily enough.
algomenoree average degree is characterized by a severe pain, often localized pain becomes broader outlines, except for pain in the abdomen and in the lumbar region joins radiating to the hips and the bladder, rectum.Can disturb frequent urination, gastrointestinal disorders - nausea, bloating, and sometimes increased peristalsis, diarrhea and headache, and general malaise.
Severe algomenoree - it expressed pain intensity is often resistant to receive analgesics.Besides pain may disturb vegetative disorders - dizziness, chills, fainting, increased heart rate.Also, there is often nausea, vomiting, intestinal disorders.Sometimes there is a total increase in body temperature, up to febrile digits.In general, there is a serious breach of the general condition - weakness, malaise, depressed mood and loss of ability to work.
In cases where the pain is moderate at algomenoree constant intensity - talking about algomenoree compensated.
When the intensity and duration of pain grow uncontrollably, such algomenoreya called decompensated.
For primary algomenoree characterized by the presence of mainly pain typical localization - is the lower abdomen, lumbar and sacral region.The nature of pain can be different - from cramping up aching, stabbing, pulling, spastic.Associated symptoms such as headache, nausea, malaise, dizziness, are much rarer.
In secondary algomenoree addition to pain, women are often concerned about the many associated unpleasant symptoms.Among them headaches, and severe weakness, nausea and sometimes vomiting in passing, bloating, episodes of vertigo, itching, palpitations, anxiety, irritability, low mood, until the depression.
algomenoree treatment should be carried out taking into account the individual characteristics of the patient, causes, forms and severity of the disease and symptoms.
The best approach is to etiotropic treatment - identification and elimination of the causes in the first place, and after the pathogenetic and symptomatic treatment.
for the treatment of primary algomenoree need to bring back to normal hormonal balance.It is possible to achieve with the help of the drugs group progestins and tablets hormonal contraceptives.Often the symptoms disappear algomenoree and hormones back to normal on their own upon the occurrence of pregnancy and / or after the birth of a child, which eliminates the need for a further correction from the outside.
If there are anatomical abnormalities in the structure of the pelvic organs, congenital defects of development, provoking the emergence algomenoree, it is recommended that their surgical correction.
Symptomatic to relieve pain and treat disorders related analgesics, antispasmodics, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs.Separately, we recommend the use of sedative drugs to combat anxiety and depressed mood.In the case of insomnia, sleeping pills as prescribed.
Perhaps the use of physical therapy techniques to improve the effectiveness of drugs and reduce the pain.But it is necessary to consider that today there is no evidence of physical therapy techniques, because the accuracy of their effectiveness has not been proved.
In secondary algomenoree too should begin treatment with the removal of the cause.In the case of diseases such as endometriosis, adhesions in the pelvis, tumor formation, such as uterine fibroids or ovarian cancer should be performed surgery.
Symptomatic help facilitate the overall as well as in primary algomenoree - painkillers, antispasmodic, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs sedatives.