Pemphigus is a dermatological disease, manifested in the appearance of the skin and / or mucous membranes of the bubbles, which quickly spread throughout the skin, have a tendency to sprawl and mergers.Pemphigus is shown longer duration, then fading, then resumed.If the disease is not treated, and start at an early stage, in some cases, death is inevitable.This disease affects both men and women older than 40 years.Pemphigus can be found also in children.The lack of proper treatment of the disease can lead to serious complications.
Causes of pemphigus have not yet fully understood.One of the main causes of pemphigus is a violation of autoimmune processes, thus the immune system cells become antibody.Violation of the cell structure falls under the influence of external factors, as well as aggressive environmental conditions.As a result, communication between cells is disrupted, resulting in the formation of bubbles.Percent disease in individuals with a hereditar
pemphigus vulgaris (pemphigus vulgaris) is the most common.The main symptoms of pemphigus is the appearance of watery blisters on the mucous membrane of the mouth, followed by skin rash all over the body, including the inguinal folds and armpits.Sometimes the patient may not notice the occurrence of small bubbles and not to pay attention to them.Later, bubbles can reach the value of the walnut and break secrete clear or bloody content.The lid on the bubble is very thin and flabby.When desiccation tires are formed crust brown.A friction seemingly healthy skin situated between bubbles observed rejection of the upper layers of the epidermis.Pemphigus vulgar accompanied by a general malaise, weakness, fever, sore throat during a meal and conversation.The disease can last for years and have a severe chronic renal disease, heart, liver.Pemphigus vulgaris is sometimes complicated by the malignant course of the disease and, despite treatment, possibly fatal.
Seborrheic pemphigus - it's hard flowing skin disease.Bubbles seborrheic pemphigus, unlike common small size.They quickly shrivel and form yellow or brown crust, like scales.The first appear on the face, scalp, and then sink to the back and chest.In the oral mucosa appear very rarely.When pemphigus seborrheic crust are formed very quickly.After removal of the traces underneath damp erosion.Very often, the bubbles are not immediately noticeable and identify the primacy of crusts is very difficult.The disease lasts long, for benign.
foliaceous pemphigus - a relatively rare disease.It may be anywhere on the body.The most common rashes occur on the scalp and face in the form of sluggish, flat bubbles with thin tires, and protruding above the surface.When tearing the tires are exposed to erosion that heal very slowly.Tires shrivel and form a thin plate scales that grow on each other.Clinical features of pemphigus are leaf-emerging bubbles, which merge with neighboring affected skin, forming an extensive wound surface.In this disease the mucous membranes are usually not affected.The severity of the patient's general condition depends on the area of skin lesions may increase in temperature, the violation of salt and water metabolism.The disease can last for years and develop into a chronic form, if time does not begin treatment.
vegetating pemphigus .Vegetating pemphigus at the very beginning of its development is very similar to pemphigus vulgaris.Also, it appears initially on the oral mucosa.Then, bubbles are formed around the orifices, behind the ears, under the breasts (in women), in the armpits.In place of the opening covered with bubbles formed purulent plaque erosion, with the release of large amounts of fluid in.Lesions often merge and form a large wound surfaces.Patients complain of pain during active movement and burning, depletion of the whole organism.The disease vegetating pemphigus benign, patients feel satisfactorily over the years.
pemphigus disease may reveal only the dermatologist, based on the results of the inspection, immunological, cytological, histological examinations.
Pemphigus virus in children characterized by the appearance on the soles, palms, toes and hands, as well as in the mouth of small wounds caused by an intestinal virus Coxsackie thatspread by coughing and sneezing.Generally the disease affects children up to 10 years, most girls.The process of the disease is easier than adults.Bubbles of different sizes are broken or shrivel.Often, before the blistering rash.Discomfort or itching almost absent.But while there is a general weakness, fever.The virus can be transmitted to other children through the chair of the sick child.The causes of viral pemphigus may be non-compliance with basic rules of personal hygiene, as well as a weakened immune system of the child.
During the illness should be as small as possible to eat sour and spicy foods that irritate the mouth.
pemphigus disease virus is most common in the spring and fall.If the time to pay attention to the rash appeared and begin treatment, the disease takes place within 7-10 days.But the virus stays in the stool and can sometimes manifest itself in a few months after tightening wounds.
Children pemphigus in malignant form is almost never, but if you still came to this stage of the disease, it is fraught with complications in the lungs, kidneys and cardiovascular system.
process is rather complicated treatment of pemphigus.Therefore, this type of self-treatment of the disease in any case inadmissible.The disease progresses rapidly, affecting large areas of the skin, which leads to violations of the internal organs.
treatment of pemphigus necessarily carried out in the dermatological hospital.First appointed corticosteroids, cytostatics and other drugs designed to alleviate the disease and life expectancy of patients.Preparations must first be taken in large doses.At the same time pay attention to the level of sugar in the blood and urine, to monitor blood pressure and observe good personal hygiene.With frequent changes of bedding, underwear to prevent the occurrence of secondary infection.
pemphigus patients administered corticosteroids in combination with anabolic steroids, as well as calcium, potassium and ascorbic acid.Supplementation is held for a long time to complete absence of lesions on the skin.In no case can not cancel or terminate, in the case of improvement, corticosteroid therapy, since it would entail the worsening of the disease.
patients definitely need to be followed up by a dermatologist.Outpatients recommended to reduce physical exertion and avoid nerve stress, be sure to observe the sleep mode.During treatment, it is desirable not to change the climate.
the treatment of pemphigus attending doctor prescribes hormones (prednisolone) inward and outward (Betamethasone).And contra sidelined.It is a feature of the disease pemphigus.
Reduce daily dose of prednisolone should be very carefully and gradually.When it is a marked improvement in the patient's condition, the daily dose of prednisolone decreases every 4-5 days to 2.5-5 mg.Thus, it is achieved to maintain a minimum dose of the drug, which provides a remission of the disease.
The use of hormones in combination with cytotoxic drugs, immunosuppressive (Sandimmun) leads to recovery of the patient in a shorter time and with the use of smaller daily doses of drugs.This thus achieves a positive result in the treatment of pemphigus.
Sandimmun first appoint half dose to establish tolerability of the drug to patients.Then, the daily dose is divided into two doses every 12 hours.With a clear improvement of the patient and reducing ulcerations daily dose drugs reduce.
After complete cleansing disease is not considered to be defeated, the patient must still take the minimum dose of Sandimmun, matched for each individual, even after remission.As maintenance therapy the drug should be taken 2-4 months.
In combination with hormones used Azathioprine 2-4 daily administration and Methotrexate - 1 time per week.
the treatment of pemphigus are also used methods of blood purification - hemosorbtion and plasmapheresis.
hemosorption apply to patients in concomitant severe diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, hyperthyroidism.When hemosorption removes antibodies and other disease-causing components.
plasma transfusion during plasmapheresis is performed at intervals of 7 to 14 days.In one procedure removed from 500 to 2,000 ml of plasma with donor plasma or introducing plasma expander.As a result, circulating immune complexes are removed from the blood of patients.SUMMARY
method photochemotherapy in the treatment of pemphigus reduces inactivation of blood cells using G-methoxypsoralen combined with irradiated cells with ultraviolet rays and introducing them into the blood.As a result of these procedures, blood is cleared from toxic substances and immunoglobulins.