Endocrine diseases



hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism - a condition in which the production of thyroid hormone thyroxine, so that from the - for lack of thyroid hormone in the body there are various systemic disorders.Hypothyroidism is one of the most common diseases of the endocrine system.In adults, an extreme form of the disease is G. myxedema, and the children - cretinism


The disease is different for primary and secondary.

Primary G. directly associated with impaired function and structure of cells directly by the thyroid gland (surgery on the thyroid gland, autoimmune chronic infections, congenital anomalies and so forth.).

G. Secondary is caused by hypothalamic and pituitary disorders (traumatic, neoplastic and infectious lesions), from - for which decreases the secretion of pituitary TSH.

In many documented cases, the causes remain unclear G. - the so-called idiopathic hypothyroidism


There is a noticeable slowdown in almost all metabolic processes (protein, lipid, primary sharin

g mucopolysaccharides), taking place in the human body.

In most cases, the disease is in the early stages develops gradually and almost imperceptibly.There mental and physical fatigue, weakness, drowsiness, reduced performance, impaired memory and there headaches .

changes occurring in the human body in hypothyroidism:

- puffy, pale, mask-like face.Puffiness and drooping eyelids.It becomes fuzzy and slow due to the swelling of the tongue and vocal cords

- reduces the secretion of sweat and sebaceous glands, occurs brittle nails and hair.The skin becomes swollen, thick and cold to the touch (sometimes jaundiced tint)

- hypotension (drop in blood pressure), bradycardia (heart rate slows significantly), there is enough pain and discomfort in the chest and around the heart.Even with minor physical exertion dyspnea occurs

- There is a significant loss of appetite, nausea and flatulence.The bile stagnates in the gall bladder (may cause intestinal obstruction and formation of stones) due to decreased muscle tone of the biliary tract and intestine

- There is a lack of oxygen due to the decrease pulmonary ventilation.There is a tendency to develop bronchitis and pneumonia.Reduced fluid excretion by the kidneys

- Appears lethargy, reduced intelligence, it slows down, there is an increased nervousness and irritability.Insomnia at night and daytime sleepiness.Disturbed sensitivity of the limbs, there neuralgia, accompanied by muscle pain

- In about 70% of patients with reduced absorption of vitamin B12 and iron in the gastro - intestinal tract, thereby developing the so-called "tiriogennaya anemia" and of - the slow absorption of glucose - decreasingblood sugar

- Reduced libido may develop infertility .

- Even though the almost complete lack of appetite - patients significantly gain weight

- G. Children can manifest itself in the form of shortening of the limbs and skeletal growth lag

Possible complications

In some cases, hypothyroidism cancause quite serious complications: acute or chronic heart failure, cretinism, hypothyroid coma.

hypothyroid coma - the most severe, and in some cases even fatal complication that develops due to the fact that long-term treatment is not carried out or carried out by G., but not qualitatively (most susceptible to older women).Symptoms of hypothyroid coma:

- Reduced urination

- lowers blood pressure

- Breathing and heart rate are rare

- The skin is cold and dry, the color of jaundice

Treatment of hypothyroidism

treatment of all forms of G. based on applicationreplacement therapy (used synthetic analogs of thyroid hormone - levothyroxine and so on.).The effect comes already during the first month of treatment.Treatment with thyroid hormones should be carried out very carefully, and select the necessary dosage for each patient individually under constant control of ECG, blood cholesterol levels, heart rate, and complaints of pain in the heart.

duration of treatment is determined depending on the reasons for the development of the city and the general condition of the body, and may be a few months or years, or for life.

replacement therapy for hypertension or tachycardia held synthetic thyroid hormone (thyroxine, thyroidin, tireotom, triiodothyronine, Thyreocombum, tireotom forte) in combination with a p-blockers (trazikor, Inderal).

If there is a shortage of iodine - it is administered in a dosage form appropriate and adequate dosage of a particular case.Self-iodine is highly undesirable, as in the case of incorrect dosages, the activity of iodine can worsen the condition of the thyroid gland

Prevention and forecast

preventive measures to prevent the occurrence and development of hypothyroidism are considered to sanitation nasopharyngeal region and a warning and, if necessary, and quality treatment of infectiousdiseases.

for properly selected adults with adequate treatment later in life outlook is quite favorable.But in children with congenital G. even with optimal selection of treatment is almost never possible to restore the normal functioning of the brain, resulting in possible development of cretinism, and not excluded stunting.

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