Diabetes - a disease caused by insufficient secretion of the hormone insulin by the pancreas, is responsible for regulation of glucose (sugar) in the blood.The disease is characterized by impaired carbohydrate metabolism with increased glucose in the urine and blood, as well as other violations of the metabolic processes.Today, according to statistics, the disease on the planet suffers about one hundred and fifty million people.
have diabetes are two main types: insulin (diabetes first type) and insulin-dependent (type II diabetes).In this article we look at the first type.
In most cases, insulin-dependent diabetes develops in people under the age of forty years, and the people should always give yourself insulin.The main cause of diabetes is the death of a first type beta - cells responsible for the synthesis of insulin, resulting in production of the hormone or completely terminated or substantially reduced.This is due to various factors: viral infections, autoimmune process, and
Once the virus in the human body and its detection by the immune system begins to produce antibodies that and destroy the virus.However, due to the individual characteristics of the immune system, the synthesis of antibodies, even after the destruction of foreign agents does not stop, and they begin to attack the cells of the body's own, destroying the beta - cells of the pancreas
causes of diabetes
main predisposing factor of this disease is hereditary.The risk of diabetes is very high, if a person has a close relative (mother, father, sister, brother) suffering from this disease.According to statistics, the probability of inheritance of the father is 10%, and the mother - about 7%.If the disease is present in both parents, the probability of occurrence of diabetes increases to 70%.
also one of the contributing factors is obesity, so the lifelong need to very carefully monitor their weight.Also, the death of the beta - cells, probably due to destruction of pancreas by the impact of certain diseases (cancer, pancreatic cancer, pancreatitis, diseases of the endocrine glands).In this case the precipitating factor may be blunt trauma of the abdominal cavity.
addition, cell death synthesizing insulin can cause viral infections: infectious hepatitis, chickenpox, flu , rubella and others. These infections act as a trigger, trigger the development of diabetes.There is quite a healthy person, these diseases do not cause diabetes, but in combination with factors such as obesity and heredity, it is quite likely.
Chronic stress, taking certain medications, various hormonal disorders, long-term alcohol abuse and the natural aging process of the body and increase the risk of developing diabetes
main signs of the presence of a person of diabetes are:
-Despite the presence of a constant feeling of hunger, there is a rapid weight loss
- The feeling of thirst and frequent urination
- The feeling of general weakness or fatigue
- Numbness and then tingling numb limbs
- blurred vision, so-called "white veil"sight
- Violation of sexual activity
- The feeling of heaviness in the legs
- Slow healing of infections
- Itching in the perineum and itching
- drop in body temperature below normal values
- leg cramps and fatigue
- Slow healing wounds
- Pain in the heart
diagnosis of diabetes is set on the basis of such diagnostic features as: increased levels of fasting blood glucose,the emergence of the sugar in urine, increased consumption and thus release of fluid in the urine, weight loss, urinary excretion of ketone bodies
Treatment of diabetes
For treatment using insulin, oral hypoglycemic drugs, diet therapy and exercise therapy.The main objective of therapeutic interventions is to restore normal body weight and normalization of metabolic disorders;restoration / conservation work, as well as treatment / warning vascular complications.
artificially synthesized insulin (a protein hormone) is widely used for the treatment of diabetes (insulin-dependent).It can be administered only by injection, as in the case of ingestion, it is destroyed and therefore can not realize their direct biological destiny.This drug is available in a special syringe - the tubes, so the patient can easily make a shot, when he feels that he needs it.In most cases, the onset of the disease is still present in the body cells produce insulin, but their number is very small and does not meet the needs of the organism.After insulin starts coming from the outside, with an additional burden of these cells and they are removed after a certain period of time begin to synthesize more insulin.During this period, the dose of insulin may decrease.This process occurs in patients in the first year of the disease and, unfortunately, lasts long enough.After his graduation in insulin dose increases again
diet in diabetes
In all clinical forms of diabetes to adhere to a certain diet is a vital necessity.
The basic principles of diet therapy include: a strictly individual selection of daily calories, total exclusion of carbohydrate;strictly a calculated content of physiological amounts of fats, proteins, vitamins and carbohydrates;split meals with uniformly distributed in carbohydrates and calories.The diet used in diabetes, the ratio of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in consumed food should be as close as possible to the physiological: 50 - 60% of total calories should fall on carbohydrates, 25 - 30% fat and 15 - 20%proteins.Also diet should contain per kilogram of body weight for at least 4 - 4.5 g carbohydrates, 1 - 1.5 grams of protein and 0.75 - 1.5 g fat in a daily dosage.
main rule of diet in diabetes is the complete elimination or significant restriction of consumption of refined carbohydrates, and their total number should be about 125 grams per day (to prevent ketoacidosis).