Graves' disease (diffuse thyrotoxic goiter, Graves' disease, Graves' disease) - an autoimmune disease characterized by excessive production of thyroid hormones, so that violated all the energy and metabolic processes,and there are failures in the adequate functioning of various systems and organs
main reason leading to the development of Graves' disease is the presence of not established at this point the science of genetic defect in the regulatory system, the production of antibodies by the immune system.Due to violations of the regulation, begins to produce antibodies against its own tissues of human thyroid.The immune system, whose main task is to fight against all foreign agents (tumor cells, protozoa, bacteria, viruses), begins to "fight" with the thyroid tissues of their own, mistakenly perceiving it as foreign by certain components.Today, Graves' disease is probably only known to modern science autoimmune disease, when there is an increase of organ function, a
presence of a genetic defect is confirmed by the fact that quite often diffuse toxic goiter in children.Because of this, you can clearly judge the family history of the disease.However, if Graves' disease is present in one of the parents, it does not give grounds to say with confidence that Graves' disease can also occur in children
Not all patients suffering from this disease, there is a classic Graves' triad(presence of enlarged eyes and goitre, hyperthyroidism).In most cases, patients with diffuse toxic goiter, thyroid volume is perfectly normal and enlarged eyes (Graves' ophthalmopathy, endocrine ophthalmopathy, exophthalmos) were observed only in 30% of patients.
to main complex of symptoms, patients with Graves' disease plaguing include:
- Changes in the cardio - vascular system (catabolic syndrome): tachycardia, and quite strongly expressed feeling heart.Often, patients experience palpitations not only in the chest but also the abdomen, head, hands
- When a long-term hyperthyroidism (often in elderly patients), there is a marked development of dystrophic changes in myocardium, frequent manifestations of which are flicker (fibrillation) Atrial.In most cases, this complication occurs in hyperthyroidism patients up to 50 years.As a result of further progression myocardiodystrophy develop changes in ventricular myocardium and congestive heart failure
- catabolic syndrome is usually manifested by progressive weight loss (10 kg or more.) Due to increased appetite, and increasing weakness.The temperature of the skin is significantly increased, in some cases, there is a pronounced rash.Patients feel a constant feeling of heat, so that even at a low enough temperature, they do not freeze.In elderly patients may identify evening subfebrile
of the nervous system, characterized by changes in mental lability: periods of excitement and aggression alternate tearfulness and asthenia.Often, however, a non-specific symptom is a fine tremor (slight trembling fingers outstretched arms).In severe thyrotoxicosis, the tremor may spread throughout the body and are even able to impede it patient
- At the time of detection of diffuse toxic goiter, a significant number of patients have certain disorders of the eye: there is a "sand in the eyes", increased lacrimation, the feeling"pressure" in the eyeballs.With the development of endocrine ophthalmopathy, symptoms had more pronounced: there is no possibility of complete closure of the eyelids, characteristic bulge eyeballs, saw the rise of the upper eyelid, the skin around the eyes visibly red, eyelids swollen
treatment of diffuse toxic goiter maybe a medication (using radioactive iodine) and surgical (with severe forms of the disease).It must be carried out in a calm atmosphere with the obligatory normalization of sleep of the patient.Patients should be food grade quality, with a high content of vitamins and dietary proteins.
When medication shown antitireodnye drugs: imidazole derivatives and thiouracil, iodine, sedatives and drugs potassium.
radioiodine therapy is used exactly the same as when hyperthyroidism .
indicators for surgery (surgery on the thyroid gland), increased symptoms of cardio - vascular insufficiency, large size goiter (enlarged thyroid gland above the third degree), and allergic reactions.
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