April
26
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Endocrine diseases

Goiter endemic

Goiter endemic

Goiter endemic endemic Goitre (nontoxic goiter, euthyroid goitre) - a disease characterized by an increase in the thyroid gland, which is found among residents of certain geographical areas.Endemic goiter mainly distributed in geographic areas where there is a deficiency of iodine in the environment (food, soil, water).Endemic goiter is considered to be the area if its the geographical boundaries in more than ten percent of the population reveal a mixed, or non-toxic diffuse goiter

Causes

main cause of endemic goiter is iodine deficiency in food, water and soil, andrespectively, in animals and plants, the places where goiter is common.The confirmation of the theory that iodine deficiency contributes to endemic goiter is undoubtedly a proven fact reduce, and in some cases, complete disappearance of goiter, after the start of the regular supply of the population of these areas of iodized salt.

Iodine is vital to the human body for the synthesis of thyroid hormones like triiodothyronine a

nd thyroxine, so a constant iodine deficiency affects the adequate functioning of the thyroid gland

Symptoms

Symptoms of endemic goiter determined by the functional state of the thyroid gland, as well as the size and shape of goiter.In most cases, patients complain of a cosmetic nuisance, but sometimes they can disturb the feeling of pressure in the neck (in women is particularly noticeable under stress or during menstruation).There are diffuse, nodular and mixed forms of endemic goiter.

In diffuse form of the thyroid gland is proportionally increased in both shares, it is a good mobile swallowing, elastic and painless at a palpation.

nodes form is characterized by one or more different size units.On palpation determined nodes partial mobility and density.In some cases, the position and size of the crop is such that compression occurs adjacent organs (blood vessels, the esophagus, trachea).As a result of impaired blood flow that occurred during compression of blood vessels, blood vessels can expand the front of the chest (usually at a retrosternal goitre) and neck.

In most cases, the functional state of the thyroid gland in the normal range, but due to the continued existence of goiter may decrease its function ( Hypothyroidism ).In some areas, moderate and mild endemic goiter may develop with increased thyroid function ( Hyperthyroidism ).

diagnosis of endemic goiter is set on the basis of the examination the doctor that the patient lives in an endemic area and confirmed by ultrasound and laboratory tests.In addition, the radioisotope scanning is performed (research using radioactive iodine)

Treatment

endemic goiter depends on the functional state of the thyroid gland, the size and shape of the crop, the presence of comorbidities.In diffuse goiter with a small degree of thyroid enlargement good effect give iodine, assign intermittent.In the absence of a positive effect, this treatment should be stopped, because long-term use of high doses of iodine may develop hyperthyroidism.In that case prescribe hormone hypothyroid (strictly individually, depending on the presence of disorders of cardio - vascular system and the patient's age).Duration of treatment may vary from several months to several years.

With a large goiter, in the case of squeezing effects on the organs of the neck, showing surgery.

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