enamel hypoplasia - a malformation of the dental tissues, which manifests itself in violation of mineralization and structure of dental tissues during their formation.In most cases, there is only a violation of the formation of enamel, but in some severe cases and dentin.It is the expressed form of the disease is aplasia of the enamel, which manifests the absolute lack of enamel coating.Hypoplasia in some - anywhere reveal almost 50% of primary school children and preschool children, and in most cases it is systemic and is expressed in the defeat of several teeth
The main reasons for the development of enamel hypoplasia include metabolic disorders(especially mineral metabolism) in the body of the fetus during the formation of the tooth.In addition, in recent years, based on the results of numerous observations and studies have found that infectious diseases (toxoplasmosis, rubella, SARS, etc.) And toxicosis in pregnant women also lead to the development of the d
Manifestations enamel hypoplasia
The disease is diagnosed as temporary and permanent teeth and appears different sizes depigmentation or whitishstained with shiny smooth surface.These spots can be combined with a cup-shaped or punctate furrows, depressions, constrictions enamel crowns of teeth.The enamel in these centers loses its characteristic color, but retains its density.In some cases there may be a limited portion of the tooth enamel complete absence of a cup-shaped recess.It is extremely rare enamel missing almost the entire surface of the tooth, resulting in tooth gets ugly, freakish form.The most frequently observed enamel hypoplasia in the cutting edge of the canines, incisors and first molars mounds.
Clinically enamel hypoplasia distinguish the following forms:
- Spotted form hypoplasia (46.8% of patients).On the surface of the enamel white spots are observed, with a shiny smooth surface and sharp boundaries, which are located at the same level of crowns of teeth arranged symmetrically.Symmetry is characteristic not only for the location of the spots themselves, but for their sizes and shapes
- furrowed hypoplastic form (5.2% of patients).Observed grooved recesses enamel, variety in their depth and width, parallel to the cutting edge;and at the bottom of the grooves of the enamel layer is much thinned, and in some cases completely absent
- erosive form of hypoplasia (27.3% of patients).It expressed thinning layer of enamel in a limited area in different locations of the tooth crown.The most common defects are rounded and are arranged symmetrically on the same teeth, while keeping the same size
- mixed form hypoplasia (20.7% of patients).It expressed alternating erosion and white spots on the teeth, or a combination of erosions, spots and grooves
Treatment of enamel hypoplasia
The treatment of this disease depends on the degree and form of hypoplasia.In the presence of single spots and superficial lesions of the enamel coating, etiotropic treatment is not carried out.If you have spotted hypoplasia held grinding of the affected areas or bleaching drugs.If changes are expressed in the enamel interceptions and point depressions, held their filling with composite materials.If defects of enamel and dentin pronounced, appointed by complex treatment with the subsequent installation of metal-ceramic crowns.In order to prevent the development of caries, conducted Remineralizing therapy.