Vascular disease



arteritis photo artery - an inflammatory disease of the arteries.In essence, all of inflammation of any part of the body and in all organs can be called arteritis as inflammation always originates with the destruction of the inner layer of blood vessels, thus corpuscles and other substances responsible for inflammation, exits the vessel and is impregnated with the surrounding tissue.

All arteritis are divided into 2 nd main groups: primary and secondary.Primary occur as an independent disease, and secondary as a result of other diseases.Arteritis can affect vessels of different diameters: from large arteries to the capillaries.

arteritis causes

reasons most primary arteritis has not been determined.It proved the influence of certain groups of bacteria and viruses on the occurrence of certain arteritis.The emergence of this disease is preceded by symptoms of the particular disease.Of great importance is family history, because it is known that in the same family are more common arteritis.Some

medications can exacerbate the disease.Immune reactivity also affects the formation of vascular inflammation.

defeat at the vascular arteritis occurs as follows: an immune inflammation of the artery walls as a result of auto-antibodies in the blood, the immune complexes that are deposited on the walls of the arteries;distinguished mediators of inflammation cells damaged vessels;attracted new cells formed foci of inflammation.

Temporal arteritis

Temporal arteritis or giant cell arteritis, is a special form of vasculitis, which applies to certain branches of the aortic arch, usually on the temporal artery.But not only the temporal artery suffering from this type arteritis, but other vessels of the head and neck.Clinical manifestations is expressed most clearly in the temporal artery, so the title is appropriate.

Ill giant cell arteritis often middle-aged women, about 50 years.We prove a genetic predisposition for temporal arteritis.Inflammation of the vessel in this case is granulomatous in nature, i.e.formed in the wall of the artery kind mononuklernyh conglomerates of cells to form giant cells.This affects all layers of the vessel wall.Thus changes in the temporal artery vertebral artery are exposed, visual and ciliary artery.When analyzing the inflamed artery wall it was found a large amount of antibodies, which attack the structural elements of the vessel.This proves the autoimmune nature of the disease.

patients with temporal arteritis experiencing severe headache pulsating character, discomfort and pain when chewing, swallowing, and pain in the cervical area.The area affected arteries swollen, painful.Often patients can not touch to the scalp because of the soreness.When the feeling is determined nodularity vessels.In connection with the defeat of the ophthalmic artery arise from the symptoms of the visual apparatus.Perhaps the omission of the century, visual impairment up to complete its loss.

arteritis can develop facial artery.If giant cell arteritis affected aorta, the heart rate is observed inequality, various symptoms of irregular blood supply of the limbs.Most patients are prone to temporal arteritis polymyalgia rheumatica.This disease is characterized by pain or stiffness of the shoulder muscles of the pelvic girdle.Accurate diagnosis is on the basis of angiography and biopsy.

arteritis symptoms

There are many arteritis.One of the most common is polyarteritis nodosa.This disease often manifests itself as a lower limb arteries.The patient complains of a sharp decline in weight, long seemed wanton fever, severe pain in the leg muscles and migratory joint pain.Due to blockage of blood vessels damaged on ischemic skin appear different rashes.When the feeling of the affected area of ​​the vascular stem defined by bumps or nodules.This artery aneurysm.

with affected muscles atrophied vessels arteritis, gangrene may occur.Along with the defeat of the lower limbs there is inflammation in the renal arteries, which leads to disruption of renal function: there is hypertension, disrupted the process of excretion of the end products of protein breakdown.Vascular lesions of the brain and spinal cord leads to disruption of the sensitivity of a particular area of ​​the body, seizures.

arteritis testicular artery causing unbearable pain in the scrotum.The appearance of vascular inflammation in the abdominal cavity is manifested symptoms of acute surgical pathology.Koronarity can lead to heart attacks and cardio.

Another severe arteritis is Wegener's granulomatosis.This pathology affects the small blood vessels, especially arteries, and renal airway capillaries.In this case, patients are concerned, along with the general intoxication, pain in the nose and throat, mouth, hemoptysis, frequent bleeding and pus from the nose.It may be visual disturbances, sometimes to the point of absolute blindness.Affects the lungs and pleura.With involvement of glomerular capillary disease, glomerulonephritis occurs.With the progression of the disease may occur renal failure.Current arteritis Wegener undergoes 4 stages: rhinogenous, with the defeat of the nose;pulmonary, with symptoms pleurisy, pulmonary infiltration;generalized stage, which affects other organs;terminal, with the occurrence of failure of all systems.

Churg-Strauss arteritis - small-caliber vascular disease in conjunction with asthma.In the first phase of the disease are observed lesions of the nasal mucosa with formation of polyps.Later develops asthma.There are pulmonary infiltrates.The second phase is characterized by the appearance of a large number of eosinophils and their migration into lung tissue, gastrointestinal tract, heart.Infiltration of the skin manifests urticaria, and other rash.The third phase begins with the appearance of systemic arteritis: fever, aches throughout the body, weight loss.There are myocarditis, pericarditis, which leads to heart failure.Occur wall perforation of the gastrointestinal tract.Disturbed skin sensitivity.

Microscopic polyangiitis - povrezhnenie minimum caliber vessels.Onset of the disease non-specific and resembles acute respiratory infections.Later on the patient's skin rashes appear: purple, hemorrhage, foci of necrosis, ulceration.Affects the eyes.Suffer the upper respiratory tract: rhinitis, sinusitis, frontal sinusitis.There pneumonia.Manifestations of renal lesions begin with renal insufficiency.

nonspecific aortoarteriit (Takayasu's arteritis) affects large elastic vessels - the aorta and its main branches, the pulmonary artery.Acute onset, sharp rise in temperature, expressed general intoxication.Damaged joints of the upper extremities, Raynaud's syndrome appears.The skin sores occur.Aortic arch syndrome includes the following symptoms: pain, coldness of hands, absence of the radial pulse, the difference in blood pressure in the arms.With involvement of the carotid artery having strokes, encephalopathy.

arteritis treatment

polyarteritis nodosa treated with pulse therapy.For this purpose, Methylprednisolone 1000 mg for three days, on the second day was added Cyclophosphamide 1000 mg.Besides pulse therapy using prednisolone - 1 mg / kg to 1 month.with a further dose reduction to half of the original, which is given one month.To consolidate the results, along with prednisone should appoint Cyclophosphamide - 2 mg / kg etc.-1 year.Applied immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis.If you have any symptoms related conduct appropriate therapy.

Wegener's granulomatosis can be treated with pulse therapy as polyarteritis nodosa.The main drug in the base is Cyclophosphamide therapy with initial introduction of 5-10 mg per kg per d. For 7 days.Then, at a dose of 1-2 mg per kg per d. Inwardly for 2-3 weeks.And throughout the year to continue to take 25-50 mg d. With cytostatic take prednisolone at a dose of 20-30 mg.Also topical antibiotics: azithromycin, clarithromycin, Biseptolum.Hemodialysis is applicable in renal failure.

Churg-Strauss arteritis being treated with prednisolone for a month at a dose of 1 mg / kg.Cyclophosphamide administered 2 mg per kg for 9-12 months.The pulse therapy is the same as described earlier.

Therapy microscopic arteritis is similar to therapy Churg-Strauss arteritis.

aortoarteritis nonspecific acute stage treated with prednisolone at a dose of 30-100 mg per day.before subsiding manifestations.If such treatment is small, then add Cyclophosphamide inside of 2 mg kg ha.Apply pulse therapy.

appointed for the prevention of thrombosis heparin subcutaneously.Comorbidity treated posimptomno.

to improve blood aggregation prescribe aspirin, chimes, clopidogrel.To improve the microcirculation using pentoxifylline, ksantinola nicotinate.Sometimes you have to resort to surgical angioprotezirovaniyu.

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