Vascular disease

Arteriosclerosis obliterans

arteriosclerosis obliterans

arteriosclerosis obliterans photo obliterans atherosclerosis - a disease of modern humans associated with the deposition of lipids in the intima of blood vessels.Over time, these lipids become connective frame and close the lumen of the vessel."Obliterating" means closing the lumen.So way obliterated artery can not fully deliver oxygen and nutrients to the organs.These bodies are, in turn suffer from a lack of oxygen, and this can be manifested in the form of atrophy and death of the organ.

obliterating atherosclerosis begins to develop in the very young age.Therefore, each person needs to maintain an optimal lifestyle, it is advisable to abandon permanently all addictions, to atherosclerosis has not progressed.

arteriosclerosis obliterans causes

main cause of atherosclerotic lesions is a violation of the integrity of the inner layer of blood vessels.In normal human vessels coated with a thickness equal to one cell.Endothelial cells - the cell is the inner layer.They perform a variety of func

tions.They contain a number of receptors that are responsible for attachment of the active substances.The cells themselves produce a lot of vasoactive peptides and other hormones.Also, endothelial cells are involved in the mechanism of blood clotting and perform immunological function.Blood that closely contacted with endothelial cells may comprise damaging agents can damage cells by high pressure.The inner layer is firmly connected with the elastic basal membrane.This is followed by muscle layer.It serves as a skeleton of the arteries using this layer decreases and increase vessel lumen.

There are many theories of atherosclerotic lesions.The lipid theory is that precedes the appearance of atherosclerotic plaque lipid metabolism.According to the thrombogenic theory of atherosclerosis begins mural thrombus.Infectious theory says about the impact of an infectious agent in the development of atherosclerotic lesions.Immunological theory explains the occurrence of atherosclerosis as a result of immune inflammation.According to the theory of the peroxide, the occurrence of atherosclerotic plaques begins after violent reaction of peroxide lipids in the vessel wall.There is also a theory of the development of atherosclerotic lesions at the site of tumor degeneration of the vascular wall.Sure, there is the influence of genetic factors in the occurrence of atherosclerotic lesions.

There are several stages in the development of atherosclerosis obliterans.The primary stage of development of atherosclerosis begins with increasing the permeability of the endothelial cells.This may contribute to a change of the normal composition of the blood, high blood pressure.As a result, gaps between the cells (intima) and for expanding them penetrate lipid complexes which comprise cholesterol.This process is accelerated by lipid peroxidation.

next stage of progression of atherosclerotic lesions characterized by the appearance on the wall of the vessel so-called lipid strips.Special immune system cells - monocytes, attacking the lipids that accumulate under the endothelium.So derived foam cells - a major component of atherosclerotic plaque.Eventually crowded lipids monocytes undergo programmed cell death, thus there is a release of pent-up cholesterol from the cells.This creates preconditions for the emergence of lipid spots, then lipid strips, and after, and atherosclerotic plaques.Lipid spots represent points of a diameter of 1.5 mm, which do not rise above the vessel wall.Sometimes these spots can disappear without a trace.But more often they are modified lipid strips.They have an elongated shape and have slightly raised above the endothelium, thereby impede blood flow.

transitional stage lesions obliterating atherosclerosis begins with the transition from the smooth muscle cells in the middle layer of endothelium.Then smooth muscle cells acquire new properties to capture lipids.When muscle cells are overloaded with lipids, is their doom and yield of lipids in the intima.So begins the next stage of atherosclerotic lesions - an atheroma or atherosclerotic plaque.It is a dense lipid core.When atheroma becomes fibrous cap, then it turns into fibroateromu.Further progress of the atherosclerotic plaque is obezystvlenii or divorced fibrous cap with the appearance of complications.

arteriosclerosis obliterans symptoms

atherosclerotic lesions Symptoms depend on where the affected arteries.However, there are common signs.They are pronounced signs of aging, the patient looks older than it actually is.Early graying of hair, multiple spots of yellow color on the skin of the trunk, abundant growth of hair on the ear lobe and the formation of a diagonal crease in it.Available matte circle around the edge of the iris of the eye.

obliterating atherosclerosis of the heart manifested coronary heart disease.Most often suffer male patients aged over 40 years.But now there is a tendency to a decrease in the age of patients with obliterating atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease.The result is a blockage or narrowing of the coronary vessels.In the area of ​​the myocardium, where the diseased artery, ischemia occurs.The main symptoms of myocardial ischemia is chest pain compressive nature that cropped nitrates.Man during an attack is afraid of death, it stops abruptly, if it is in motion, and is forced to ride out the attack.

obliterating atherosclerosis of the aorta is shown burning pain in the chest (with the defeat of thoracic), which can give in the neck, arms, back.Pain is usually constant, is not eliminated by nitrates.Because of the sealing wall of the aorta may occur difficulty swallowing, hoarseness.As a result, reducing the blood supply to the brain can appear seizures.When obliterating atherosclerosis of the abdominal aorta there is intermittent claudication, cold and numb limbs, hair loss, muscle atrophy, drumsticks and thighs, impotence, occurrence of venous ulcers.Complication of atherosclerotic lesions of the aorta aneurysm is, the danger of which is the possibility of rupture and death.

arteriosclerosis obliterans of limbs shows weakness, fatigue during physical work, a sense of chilliness legs, crawling, intermittent claudication, pallor, trophic disorders.On the main arteries of the lower limbs may be no pulse.

obliterating atherosclerosis of the brain manifests in the form of headaches, ringing in the ears.Later develops a bad memory for recent events, the good - the events of long years.Disturbed sleep.A patient with obliterating atherosclerosis of the brain becomes whiny, picky, it changes the character.The face becomes amimichnym, it looks dull, expressionless.The gait becomes shuffling.It affects the blood vessels of the retina, resulting in decreased vision.Severe complications of the disease are stroke and cerebral infarction.

arteriosclerosis obliterans treated

first step in the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions is the elimination of risk factors.There are two groups of risk factors for atherosclerotic lesions: irreversible and reversible.Irreversible include age (more common in patients 40-50 years), male gender, genetic susceptibility.Reversible risk factors for atherosclerotic lesions - a smoking, hypertension, high body mass index, physical inactivity, constant stress.It is important to eliminate the reversible factors as advances atherosclerotic lesions significantly reduced or stopped altogether.

known that smokers risk of atherosclerotic lesions by 70% higher than non-smokers.Hypertension adversely affects the vascular wall, damaged by the disease, as the flow of blood under high pressure destroys the endothelium.Normal pressure, significantly reduces the risk of damage to the endothelial cells.

normalization of body mass index and limit consumption of animal fats is directly related to the regression of atherosclerotic lesions.The level of blood cholesterol, must not be higher than 5.2 mmol / l.Support can be using a special diet.The main principles of this diet for the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions: reducing consumption of animal fats, increased consumption of vegetable oils, fish and seafood.You must type in the diet of more fruits, and on the other hand, limit fried foods and table salt.But we must remember that only 20% of the cholesterol enters the body with food.80% of cholesterol is produced in the body.It is therefore necessary to take drugs that reduce the production of its own cholesterol if you do not help diet and exercise.

There are several types of drugs that lower lipids.Bile acid sequestrants is not allowed to cholesterol and fats absorbed in the intestine.They bind bile acids and eliminating them from the organism, in response to increased production of bile acids in the liver from cholesterol own, hindering the development of atherosclerotic lesions.Possible side effects of bloating, nausea, constipation, diarrhea.The effect of cholesterol lowering seen in a month administration.Colestipol are administered in a dose of from 5 to 15 grams per day in 2-3 divided doses.It is worth remembering that the bile acid sequestrants with prolonged application interfere with the absorption of fat soluble vitamins and folic acid.

Another group of drugs that slow the development of atherosclerotic lesions, are the means which inhibit the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine.Polisponin - extract of a plant which comprises saponins substances that interfere with the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine, and hence in the blood.Assign it in the form of tablets of 0.1-0.2 g per three doses after meals.The cycle of treatment - 20-30 days with an interval of 7 days.Guar - a drug which is a vegetable food supplement.In the stomach, it turns into jelly and prevents the absorption of fat.At the beginning of treatment prescribed by Guarema 2.5 g twice daily.A week later, a single dose of 5 g

Nicotinic acid - a water-soluble B vitamin B. Its action against the development of atherosclerotic lesions is to decrease the synthesis of cholesterol.Together with medications, sequestering bile acids, Nikotivovaya acid causes the regression of atherosclerotic lesions.Treatment of this preparation is performed according to the following rules: begin therapy at a dose of 50 grams after eating once a day after supper.Then reception increased to two times a day, and after that - to three times after a meal.Since the dose is gradually increased up to 3 g per day.Side effects for patients with atherosclerosis obliterans: impaired function of hepatocytes, irritant effect on the stomach, the occurrence of pruritus.

Probucol - means significantly reduces the cholesterol in the blood.Its effect is to remove the activation path of cholesterol from the bloodstream.Take after eating Probucol 500 mg 2 d.

Fibrates function as reducing fats in blood plasma.These include Gemifibrozil that prescribed 30 minutes before breakfast and dinner is 450 to 600 mg bezafibrate - 200mg 3 the village., fenofibrate - 100 mg d., Ciprofibrate - 100-200 mg per day.

very effective in the treatment of atherosclerotic lesions inhibitors of 3-hydroxymethyl-glyutaril-coenzyme A reductase, or more simply, statins.They interfere with the synthesis of cholesterol.Lovastatin initially prescribed 20 mg 1 p.per day.A month later, increase the dose to 40 mg, and a month before - 80 mg.Simvastatin - a daily dose of 20-40 mg.Atorvastatin - 5-10 mg d.

More articles on the topic: • arteritis • Atherosclerosis

service physician recruitment is relevant only for the citizens of the Russian Federation