Hypertension - is hung persistent blood pressure above normal, usually above 140/90 millimeters of mercury.Arterial essential hypertension - another name for it here.It is more than ninety percent of the cases of hypertension. In the remaining cases are diagnosed with secondary hypertension.These include kidney to 4%, up to 0.4% endocrine, neurological and hemodynamic, stress, which are caused by the reception of iatrogenic substances.There is also hypertension during pregnancy, in which the increase in blood pressure is a symptom of underlying disease.Among the different kinds of iatrogenic hypertension has opposed various methods of dietary supplements and birth control pills.In general, contribute to hypertension over 25 combinations in the genetic code of a human body.
When doctors talk about the cause of hypertension, it is recognized that the cause of its occurrence is still unsettled.Therefore, this disease is also called essential or disease with a
theories that exist in our time, and who are trying to explain the emergence of hypertension in themselves insolvent and can drive a person in a desperate situation (when all the methods are tried), no explanation of any specific or scientific.The patient, to put it mildly, 'implanting' for treatment for treatment.Man forced almost constantly resort to using drugs for investment hypertensive condition.
In the human body works so-called system of regulating blood pressure.It also may increase due to various reasons.In the case of high blood pressure the walls of blood vessels, as the aortic arch and carotid artery severely strained.Because of this receptors are stimulated, they are located.The resulting excitation passing through the nerves, reaches the medulla oblongata.There is vasomotor center.The activity of neurons pressor depressor in contrast, will rise, thereby causing the blood vessels to expand and encouraging blood pressure to drop.In the case of lowering blood pressure, such processes are completely opposite.This explains the normal process of raising and lowering the blood pressure in the human body.For no reason the pressure will not rise.In the body, everything is interconnected.
The causes of the disease include hypertension:
1. Obesity and overweight.People with this problem very often there is an increase in blood pressure and as a consequence - hypertension.Usually, people with such disorders in the metabolism of the body, it is necessary to take it under control
2. Five percent of patients causes of hypertension may make renal dysfunction or thyroid
3. If a person is not overweight and he's slender physique.Kidney problems and thyroid it does not, then the cause of hypertension may be a lack of magnesium in the body
4. Five percent of patients with high blood pressure cause a tumor of the adrenal, pituitary tumor, poisoning, mercury, lead, etc.
In detail, the main cause of hypertension in most patients is metabolic syndrome.Typically, such patients impaired cholesterol level in blood.Metabolic syndrome is determined by several factors: an increase in waist circumference (women over 80 cm in men more than 94 cm);increase triglyceride (so-called fat) in blood exceeds 1.75 mmol per liter, or at the same patient already receiving the drug for correction of disease;high density lipoproteins in women should be less than 1.3 mmol per liter in men less than 1.0 mmol per liter;systolic blood pressure exceeds a mark 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure exceeds 85mm Hg .;blood glucose, fasting than 5.5 mmol per liter.Total, if the disease is hypertension combined overweight, you should check for the presence of the metabolic syndrome.
In addition, the causes of hypertension are: psychological stress, diabetes, kidney disease and thyroid, heredity plays a role too.
Clinical manifestations of the disease hypertension do not have specific symptoms.Sick for many years may not even guess about what kind of disease they have at home.They will feel the high vitality.Although sometimes they can still overtake bouts of dizziness, weakness, sometimes with vertigo.But as a rule, these people believe that it is from overwork.Complaints arise when affected, as they are called, organs - target.These are the bodies that are most sensitive to changes in blood pressure.
emergence of a person of headaches and dizziness, noise in my head, decreased performance and memory points to the initial changes in cerebral blood supply.Later joined by double vision, flickering flies in front of the eyes, weakness, difficulty in speech, numbness in hands and feet, but at the initial level, these changes in blood supply are coming in nature.If
stage hypertension is far gone, it can bring complications as heart attack or stroke.The earliest sign of a permanent and high blood pressure is to increase (hypertrophy) of the left ventricular myocardium.In this connection, accompanied by the growth of its weight due to the fact that the vessel walls thicken.First thickened left ventricular wall thickness, later comes the expansion chambers of the heart of the ventricle.Just proves hypertension heart.Alternatively, such a state can be called hypertension or hypertensive heart disease.In this form of hypertension may be attached coarse morphological changes in the aorta (atherosclerosis), it may expand, which may occur due to its rupture or layering.Hypertension heart in this regard is very insidious.
signs or symptoms of hypertension usual, of course, is a headache.And as the most characteristic feature of the disease, with further progression can occur at different times of day (patients often complain of the night and, after awakening from a dream).Character of headaches can be either bursting or heaviness in the occipital region, and can also cover other areas of the head.Hypertension can be swelling of the legs, which point to heart failure as well.In addition, they may be a sign of kidney damage.
Hypertension is the most common disease of the entire cardiovascular system.The word "hypertension" is indicated by blood pressure that is consistently remained high.High blood pressure occurs when there is a narrowing of the arteries and arterioles.
artery - this is the main traffic artery through which blood is delivered to all tissues of the body.Many people often narrowed arterioles.Initially, because of spasm, and subsequently their lumen is narrowed almost always due to a thickening of the wall.And then, the flow of blood to overcome the restriction, applied more pressure, which results in improving the work of the heart muscle, and a large amount of blood flows into the bloodstream.Such people usually suffer from hypertension more often.
This condition is chronic.About 1 out of 10 hypertensive patients have high blood pressure caused by the defeat of a certain organ.
In these cases, it is a symptomatic hypertension, or as it is called secondary.About 90 percent of patients suffering from essential hypertension form, or as it is called primary.Patients with hypertension often suffer from headaches.
When hypertension frequent hypertensive crisis.There are two types of hypertensive crisis:
- The first stage of a crisis (when required an immediate blood pressure reduction) is classified: hypertrophic encephalopathy, acute left ventricular failure, acute aortic dissection, eclampsia, postkoronarnogo arterial bypasses.In some cases, there is hypertension, which is combined increase in blood levels of circulating catecholamines.
- At the second stage of crisis (when the required conditions for the reduction of blood pressure within 12-24 hours): malignant hypertension without any complications, high blood pressure characterized by increased diastolic pressure above 140 mm Hg.
Emergency kupirizatsiya hypertensive crisis held in conditions when there is: a convulsive form (hypertensive encephalopathy) crisis in the presence of pheochromocytoma, a crisis of myocardial infarction, stroke, pulmonary edema, aortic aneurysm.
studies prescribed by a doctor for hypertension must include: a study of the fundus, the study of renal function of the heart.It can also assign patients antihypertensive therapy, which will help to identify complications that may arise during hypertension (high blood pressure).
degrees of hypertension
doctor for the correct diagnosis of hypertension is necessary to begin to determine the extent or stage of hypertensive disease in a patient, and do so to speak, a corresponding entry in his medical record.If the diagnosis of hypertension disease occurred in the late stages, the second or third, then the consequences for the body can be more serious than for the first stage of the disease.But, nevertheless, very few of the patients go to the doctor at the early or early stages of disease.And indeed, few people himself measure your blood pressure at home.Determine
Normal blood pressure at which the systolic blood pressure at which the index is less than 130 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure, in which the figures are below 85 mm Hg;
High normal at which the systolic blood pressure at which the rate of 130-140 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure, in which the figures of 85-90 mm Hg.
Hypertension 1 degree (soft), in which the systolic blood pressure has an index of 140-160 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure, in which the figures of 90-100 mm Hg;
Hypertension 2 degrees (moderate), at which the systolic blood pressure has an index of 160-180 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure, in which the figures of 100-110 mm Hg;
Hypertension Grade 3 (expressed) at which the systolic blood pressure index is greater than 180 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure, in which the figures more than 110 mm Hg.
stages of hypertension Hypertension
first stage - is characterized by increased blood pressure up to 160/100 mm which can be for a few days or weeks.However, under favorable conditions, it usually falls to normal levels.
At this stage, the symptoms are usually absent.Sometimes there may be complaints of intermittent pain headache, sleep problems, minor heartaches.
In the second stage hypertension, the pressure rises to 180/100 mm.Even if the patient will rest, it does not go down to normal levels.In addition to the increase in blood pressure can be marked narrowing of the arteries of the retina, hypertrophy of the left ventricle of the heart, there is protein in the urine in the analysis, and a slight increase of creatine in the blood plasma.It may be headache, dizziness, sleep disorders, angina, shortness of breath.From this stage it may come such as the scourge of heart attacks, strokes.At this stage, certainly taking medication for hypertension.
the third stage of hypertension has increased, increased blood pressure to 180/110 mm and above.Almost all patients there is a change (heavy) in the internal organs.There are frequent attacks of breathlessness, angina, heart rhythm disturbances, headaches, dizziness, sleep disorders and hearing, blurred vision and memory.The development of renal and heart failure.Stroke and heart attack Guaranteed.There should be urgent treatment.
Separate the two methods of treatment of hypertension: pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment.
There are various means of treating hypertension, but the treatment should start with the treatment of diseases which symptoms are secondary hypertension, and symptomatic components of hypertension.Drug-free treatment of hypertension is a diet in which there is a restriction of salt, favorable treatment of rest and work, struggle with stress, abstinence from alcohol and smoking cessation, normalization of body weight.Only when the low efficiency of this method should be connected medication.
aim of drug therapy is to reduce blood pressure, namely the elimination of the causes of the condition of vessels.Early treatment is appropriate mono and combination therapy.When it did not effectively implement low-dose combinations of drugs antigipertenzivanyh.Primarily prescribers that improve prognosis.
Beta adrennoblokatory .It is an old group of drugs that have a hypotensive effect by reducing heart rate and blood volume per minute.They improve the functioning of the heart when coronary artery disease.But the side effects of such drugs is bronchospasm, so today most doctors are moving away from this method of treatment as monotherapy.And with a long reception they contribute to the development of diabetes and erektialnoy dysfunction.These include: Proparanolol, sotalol, Metoprololol, Bisprololol, carvedilol, atenolol, and so forth.
Diuretics .For the treatment of hypertension are also used saluretics preparations are removed from the body of sodium and chlorine ions.This effect is given chlorthalidone and indapamide.But most of diuretics provokes the excretion of potassium from the body.It is best to combine them.For example, the combination of diuretics and kaptoprilla and the combination of diuretics and enalaprilla.Preparations of diuretics: indapamide, chlorthalidone, triamterene, furosemide, Torasemide, hydrochlorothiazide, amiloride.
antagonists, potassium .Used for the prevention of cerebral disorders.These include: nifedipine, felodipine, amlodipine, nimodipine, Lekranitsidin, Riotsidipin, verapamil.In no case be self-medicate in the case of hypertension.
Only a doctor can prescribe the right treatment for hypertension after properly survey.
In general, hypertension, although not entirely curable, but it is safe to say that in the coordinated work of the patient and the treating doctor can achieve good results in treatment.It is possible to obtain the stable improvement of the vascular system and the heart, as well as to improve blood cholesterol levels, which also contribute to good relief of the patient.Compliance with absolute guidelines and recommendations to help the doctor to the patient to get rid of the many symptoms that can provide this insidious disease.
Diet for Hypertension
Nutrition - it is food, which is in the maintenance of health.It also meets all the needs of the human body in vitamins, nutrients and minerals, and energy.
work throughout the heart of the system is closely tied to the processes of digestion.Hypertension diet has beneficial effects on the general condition of the patient.Abundant food can greatly overflow the stomach, and it can thereby displace the diaphragm, which complicates the work of the heart.Most of the load also creates excess fluid.But if a large number of diet perenapolnen salt thus retained in the tissues of the body water, and this provokes increase in blood pressure, sometimes also leads to edema of the extremities.
diet principles.Dining is considered a prerequisite for adherence to eat - regular meals at the same time, the best way is also sticking to the frequent and fractional power - three to five times a day, which is very important in overweight;