vascular crisis - an acute transient hemodynamic instability of the whole system or the bloodstream of a local nature, caused by disorders of vascular tone that is a result of hypotension or hypertension arterial dysfunction tissue connections of arteries and veins,and veins due to hypotension. typical attack develops on the background of functional and organic pathological processes in the central nervous system and the endocrine, with hypertension and other anomalies associated with disturbances in the regulation of vascular tone, as well as lesions of the vessel wall.
vascular crisis can be a regional and systemic.The first variant of this attack, disorders characterized by localization in tissues and organs and their blood supply, which are dependent on angiodystonia.Among regional disturbances isolated migraine, hemicrania, neuralgia, migraine, Raynaud's syndrome, hypertensive crises.
System option vascular crisis characterized by changes of a pathological nature of the
As a rule, the pathology of any type generally requires emergency medical care.The choice of drugs is determined by the pathogenesis of pathological state.
Crease vegetative-vascular dystonia - an acute form of the syndrome characterized psychovegetative disorder that occurs as a result of violations of the functional properties of the complex nature of the reticular and manifests diverse autonomic, neurotic, endocrine and metabolic disorders.This usually manifests itself by a sharp deterioration in the general condition of the patient.
Today vegetative-vascular crisis has several variants, differing in content and abundance of different active substances in the blood and characterized biological properties.There are four vegetative-vascular crisis, such as hyperventilation, sympathoadrenal, autonomic-vestibular and vagoinsulyarnye.
Basically all pathology basically have an excessive amount of acetylcholine in the body, norepinephrine, steroid hormones, adrenaline, and other biological substances action.But, nevertheless, existence Vegetovascular crisis will depend not only on the concentration of these substances, but also on the individual characteristics of the human body, as well as its sensitivity to these agents.
condition sympathoadrenal type often occurs in people who are different inhibition of the parasympathetic division of the ANS (autonomic nervous system), with a predominance of the influence of the sympathetic part of the ANS.At the time of vegetative-vascular crisis of this type of patients become restless, they are too excited to feel the emergence of anxiety, which goes into great fear.In addition, many appear discomfort in the heart of the head is developed tachycardia.In the future, there is an increase in blood pressure, patients tormented by fever and upper and lower extremities are completely cold.
vagoinsulyarnyh type of vegetative-vascular crises tend to occur in patients when vagotonia dominated the tone of the parasympathetic part of the autonomic sympathetic part of the National Assembly.This pathology is characterized by weakness in the body, the appearance of dizziness and nausea.In patients with Stroke vagoinsulyarnyh there is a shortage in the air, and they feel a sinking of the heart.The pulse becomes weak filling, blood pressure starts to decrease, there is sweating, and the patient has been an increase of intestinal peristalsis.When placing a patient in a horizontal position, it comes into the state of a bit rate.At some points the peak vascular crisis may open vomiting, not bringing the total relief.
Hyperventilation attack begins with the fact that the patient is not enough air, and he was not able to fully breathe.For breathing rates of more than thirty per minute, the patient loses a large amount of carbon dioxide.This causes tachycardia, increased blood pressure and hyperventilation tetany, which is characterized by muscle tension in the limbs.At the same time there is a feeling of cold and humidity in the hands and feet.
vegetative vestibular-type characteristic signs and symptoms of dizziness dyspeptic disorders.At the moment this state varies considerably blood pressure, but more often it is reduced, causing hypotension.Such vegetative-vascular crisis formed after changing the position of the patient's body, and sometimes even with a sharp turn of the head.
As a rule, all types of the disease may have duration from five minutes to two hours, and sometimes up to a few days (in very severe cases).
vascular crisis causes
main cause of vascular crisis are considered characteristic of the disorder in vascular tone.In this case, the regulation of disturbed neural and humoral nature of the tone.In addition, the formation of various types of vascular crises can influence many diseases.Typically, these include hypertension, various pathologic processes in the peripheral vessels, and in the central nervous system.In addition, the formation of a vascular crisis contribute to some diseases in which excessively enter into the mainstream of vessels vasoactive substances, ie hormones as aldosterone, serotonin, adrenaline and others.
Specific etiological factors causing the appearance of vascular crisis, may be inflammation of the blood vessels, frostbite, injury atherosclerosis.All these reasons lead to changes in the sensitivity of the vessel wall and the receptor apparatus.
of hemodynamic instability is also considered one of the causes of vascular crisis.This applies mainly to koartatsii aorta, as it is characterized by a narrowing of the field in peresheechnoy aorta is a congenital disease.
vascular crisis symptoms
When vascular crisis sharply there is a change in the filling of the blood vessels, causing disorders of the peripheral and central circulation.Vascular crisis manifests itself in the form of attacks or attack.In addition, depending on the dissemination of hemodynamic disorders distinguish vascular regional crises and systemic failure.To regional Creasy include angioedema, angiotrofonevroz, migraine, which occur as a result of impaired blood supply to tissues and organs.Systemic are hypotonic, vegetative and hypertensive crises.
Symptoms of vascular crisis is characterized by a variety of clinical manifestations.For example, in a fit of sudden cerebral exacerbated pain in the head, it begins to make a noise in the ears.Then, the patient may feel dizzy with the appearance of nausea and vomiting, flies flashing before his eyes.Man loses his coordination and increased blood pressure.In some cases, disturbed sensitivity to transient paralysis of the limbs.It is rarely possible to observe that the patient is completely oriented in time and space, he is constantly drowsy.In addition, there may be convulsions, may interfere with memory and excited as the psyche, and motor skills.
Clinical manifestations of migraine are a dull pain in my head, pressing nature, cause nausea and weakness.Pain may also occur in the head in the form of any of its pulsations in half.Migraines are generally proceeds in three distinct character headaches stages.
symptomatic picture of vascular crises autonomic system consists of the subspecies.For example, if sympathoadrenal species observed in patients of their strong excitatory state, they begin to shiver, they are anxious, restless.There is a feeling of panic attack, extremities become cold, increased heart rate and blood pressure, and in the head and heart patients appear quite unpleasant.When hyperventilation attack the patient suddenly starts to lack of air, rapidly developing shortness of breath, tachycardia, blood pressure rises, and the patient at the same time strongly sweats.In addition, the tense muscles in the forearms, hands, feet and legs.
Symptoms vagoinsulyarnyh type of vascular crisis characterized by a sinking heart, the lack of air in the lungs, dizziness, nausea and weakness.With the progression of vascular crisis sharply drops in blood pressure, the patient sweats heavily and becomes more frequent bowel movement.As a result, there is vomiting, but it does not get relief of the patient.
When vegetative vestibular type in the patient nausea, vomiting, dizzy, pressure drops, if the patient changes the position of his body.
This condition of the body characterized by complication of a hypertensive crisis that affects the brain and heart, and requires urgent hospitalization to the provision of skilled care necessary to avoid death.
Symptoms cerebrovascular crisis develops from severe headaches, which is mainly localized in the neck, and sometimes is widespread in nature.As the pressure increases, and vasogenic edema is aggravated by the brain, the pain in my head becomes more intense and then the patient starts vomiting and vomiting opens.In the future, develop a sense of fear of the light, disturbed vestibular system, visual disturbances observed.Sometimes, on the background of a hypertensive crisis, which is complicated by acute encephalopathy, seizures develop epileptiform nature and symptoms of the envelope properties.Also, sometimes you may receive common symptoms of brain neurology.
Usually, cerebral vascular crisis is diagnosed based on patient history, blood pressure data and clinical symptoms.To confirm the diagnosis applied research in the form of pressure measurement of the fundus and MRI of the brain when using T2.But laboratory diagnostics can detect changes in the indicators pointing to the causes of hypertension, and not just her, but also other diseases that contributed to the development of cerebrovascular attack.
treatment of vascular crisis
The basis of the treatment of various types of vascular crises is the provision of emergency medical care.When selecting drugs starting point of reference is the pathogenesis of crisis.For example, in the development of any vegetative-vascular attack at the very beginning you need to instill in sugar or water from 20 to 25 drops Corvalol, valokordin or Valoserdina.
When feelings are often heart and a sharp rise in blood pressure can be taken obzidan or Inderal in the amount of one tablet.But to remove the jitters must be sucked Diazepam 1-2 pcs.
patient, who suffers from hypertension, should always be in possession of drugs, warning hypertensive crisis.As a rule, the emergency use captopril or nifedipine.It is recommended to dissolve tableted product, and not to swallow.Sometimes it helps to lower blood pressure diuretics, such as furosemide, Veroshpiron.In addition, at the time a hypertensive attack can not sharply reduce the pressure by more than 25% of the original performance.Also, if for two hours is not possible to stop yourself vascular crisis with tablets funds, call an ambulance.
Thus, the main point in the treatment of vascular crises is timely help to prevent the development of complications, as the consequences of any attack can be disappointing.For example, in cerebral form of the disease may develop encephalopathy, stroke.When asthmatic type - cardiac asthma and pulmonary edema.In other cases - acute renal failure and myocardial infarction.
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