Hypertensive heart disease
Hypertensive heart disease - is one of the common diseases SSS, emerging as a consequence of primary disorders sosudoreguliruyuschih centers and following them and neurohumoral mechanisms of renal origin, for whichcharacterized by increasing the pressure in the arteries, functional and organic disorders central nervous system, heart and kidneys in severe forms of the disease.As a result, hypertension is a neurosis of the higher centers, controlling and regulating this pressure.
for diseases such as endocrine, renal, cardiovascular and other symptomatic or secondary forms of hypertension is considered to be a fundamental symptom that causes organ damage and the formation of a pathological process in these properties.
Hypertensive heart disease today is considered a very common disease SSS, in which BP has repeatedly locked in higher than 140/90 mm Hg in the future increases the risk of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular complications.Additionally, the disease is
prognosis of patients diagnosed with hypertension and further therapeutic treatment strategy will depend on the BP values contributing factors "target organ" are involved in the disease process, and the degree of clinical states of the disease.
Essential hypertension causes
The causes of diseases today are not fully understood.Hypertensive heart disease is characterized by identifying at early stages the main pathological moment - widespread spasm of arterioles, which refers to an objective method of determining the increased pressure in the whole system of blood vessels.
The formation of stable processes of the disease is influenced by various factors that regulate blood pressure under certain physical conditions.
the predisposing factors of hypertensive disease include genetic predisposition, emotional and nervous overload, stress, disorders of the endocrine system, obesity, nicotine, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, renal disease, age, and others.
One of the main reasons for the increaseBlood pressure is considered to be nervous stress, which can be triggered by acute and chronic psychological and emotional stress, permanent mental overexertion, injuries of the skull or brain, as well as hypoxia.Particular attention on pay while appearing tachycardia accompanied by increased cardiac output.
pathological factors include high blood pressure education isolated disruption of the medulla oblongata and the hypothalamus.A character humoral factors usually are produced in the kidney.When disturbed in their bloodstream, renin is produced, which turns into angiotensin gipertenzinogen.This latter substance contributes to narrowing of blood vessels and making mineralkortikoidy adrenal glands.And it, in turn, affects the nephrons, stimulating the absorption of sodium, which holds the vessels in line fluid and provoking increased blood pressure.
In addition, significant work of glands of the endocrine system, such as sex, thyroid and pituitary gland, has some connection with the production of hormones, which are involved in the increase in blood pressure.
The development of hypertensive disease can have a direct impact and factors of foodborne.For example, individuals who consume in excess common salt, recorded with higher blood pressure.As a result of the fact that the body's sodium is delayed, there is swelling of the vessel wall and increased blood pressure.
a significant role in the occurrence of essential hypertension discharged genetic factors.If heredity bilateral nature will inherit the same type of metabolism, which causes disturbances produce substances that regulate this pressure.Under the influence of all these factors finally formed hypertension.In addition, long-term process of narrowing of arterioles of the pancreas and adrenal glands causes them sclerotic changes.A cerebral, coronary and aortic atherosclerosis progressively formed, which promotes blood circulation in the respective organs and development of hypertension.
Hypertensive heart disease symptoms
One of the most common pathological conditions throughout SSSIt is considered hypertension.Hypertension - high blood pressure is constant.The process of increasing the pressure occurs when the arteries are narrowed or smaller branching, i.e. arterioles.Arteries are considered major highways, through which blood flows to all organs and tissues of the human body.For most people, the arterioles are narrowed, first as a result of spasm, and further their lumen resides in the narrowed state, as a consequence of thickened wall, so the flow of blood to overcome these restrictions is necessary to strengthen the heart work, and this provokes large emissions of blood in the direction of vessels.Thus, increased blood pressure, leading eventually to hypertension.
This is considered a chronic pathological process, which is characterized by a persistent increase in blood pressure above systolic pressure of 139 mm Hg.Art.and diastolic - 90 mm Hg.Art.
If high blood pressure is marked loss of an organ, then this pathological condition is considered a secondary form of hypertension.Almost 90% of people suffer from a form of essential hypertension.As a rule, counting of high blood pressure, start with three times the level of registering physician 140/90 mm Hg.Art.and more patients who were not taking drugs that lower blood pressure.
important to know that increasing the pressure on the small but persistent numbers may not indicative of the presence of hypertension.
Symptoms of the disease is not characterized by certain specifics.In addition, patients over a long period of time may not even be aware of the existing pathology, not to make specific complaints lead an active life with bouts of nausea sometimes manifested expressed in dizziness and weakness.Many have been associated with fatigue, although it should now pay attention to the first signs of the onset of hypertension and primarily measure the blood pressure.
patients in the presence of the disease complain only when the celebrated organ damage.That they are the most sensitive to the ups pressure.In this case, when the initial blood flow changes in the brain, begins to feel dizzy, have pain and buzzing in the ears, loss of memory and performance.But in the future the patient may numb limbs, general weakness, flash flies, double vision, it is difficult, but at the very beginning of the disease is characterized by circulatory disorders incoming character.But at the advanced stage of hypertensive disease can develop as a complication of cerebral infarction or hemorrhage.
The first and subsequently a permanent display of high blood pressure is considered to be an increase in left ventricular hypertrophy, or as a result of growth of its mass due to thickening of the cardiomyocytes.First thickened LV wall and then extend themselves chambers of the heart.Furthermore, this hypertrophy refers to unfavorable prognostic signs of hypertension, as it promotes the risk of ventricular arrhythmias work, heart failure, coronary artery disease, sudden death.With the progression of left ventricular dysfunction appears difficulty breathing during physical stress, asthma, cardiac origin, pulmonary edema, against the background of a hypertensive crisis, and congestive heart failure form.As a result, quite often arise myocardial infarction and ventricular fibrillation.And with atherosclerosis of the aorta expands, which could eventually serve as its rupture and delamination.
renal lesions characterized by the appearance of protein in the urine, and microhematuria cylindruria.But the development of renal failure on a background of hypertensive disease is rarely detected.When eye disease as a consequence of the disease, deteriorating eyesight, reduced light sensitivity, and sometimes blindness develops.Thus, you must be very attentive to hypertension.
characteristic symptom manifestations of hypertensive disease is a headache that can occur at any time of the day, but mostly at night or the morning after sleep.This pain is characterized by the weight and bulging in the neck, but can spread to other parts of the head.As a rule, in hypertension headache is the nature of shingles.Sometimes the pain increases with coughing, bent his head, accompanied by slight swelling of the face and eyelids.When the vertical position of the patient, muscle activity and massage improves venous return and as a result the pain becomes smaller or disappears.In addition, such a pain with an increase in blood pressure may occur as a result of voltage soft muscles of the head or her tendons.To promote its development can psycho-emotional or physical stress, but this pain is caused by the termination of relaxation and conflict resolution.Typically, the headache pain called voltage, which sometimes manifests itself by compression or contraction of the head accompanied by nausea and dizziness.But with the continuing long-term pain appears irritability, irascibility, hypersensitivity to loud music and noise.
In hypertensive also observed characteristic heart pain, which are mainly at its apex or on the left side of the sternum.They occur in a state of absolute rest, or on the background of emotional tension, and without provoking exercise.Those heartaches, do not respond to nitroglycerin, can last quite a long time.
Against the background of high blood pressure in some patients develop difficulty breathing in the form of shortness of breath, first after exercise, and later alone, which may indicate significant myocardial damage and the formation of CH.
If you have heart disease as a failure in most patients begin to swell legs.This is due to the delay of water and sodium in the body as a result of hypertension in connection with taking certain drugs or violation of the functional activity of the kidneys.
case of violation as a result of hypertensive disease accompanied by increased blood pressure occur before the eyes of flies, fog or shroud.These symptoms are characteristic of functional disorders of blood circulation in the retina.As a result, gross changes in the retina, such as thrombosis, retinal detachment or hemorrhage may occur decreased vision, diplopia, and sometimes loss of vision.
-risk hypertensive disease
Every year about such diseases as hypertension scientific conferences, which are attended by cardiologists from around the world.Today, there are adopted in 2003, a unified classification of the disease in powers.As a result of this pathological process characterized by three degrees of severity, which are peculiar to different indices AD.Thus, normal pressure is a systolic pressure within 120-129 mm Hg.Art.and diastolic - 80-84 mm Hg.Art.
For the first (light) degree of essential hypertension match figures of pressure in mm Hg.Art.from 140/90 to 160/100.Furthermore, while there is no persistent blood pressure changes of internal organs.
For the second (moderate) degree of the disease are characterized by pressure oscillations from 160/100 to 180/110 mm Hg.Art.This blood pressure is characterized by the occurrence of a stable, but to bring it back to normal requires the use of medicines.Typically, when examining such patients revealed an increase in the size of the left ventricle.
When the third (heavy) degree hypertensive disease resistant blood pressure is higher than 180/110 mm Hg.Art.As a result, such a state develop various complications such as circulatory disorders of the brain, kidney failure and heart attack.
In the process of diagnosing the disease, based on the current classification, the degree of hypertensive disease exhibit strictly by taking into account all risk factors, namely those that aggravate the disease process.Such factors are considered to be a threat against the formation of cardiovascular complications.Moreover, all the factors, as well as their numbers will affect the prognosis of hypertension.And in order to determine the risk of this disease is important to consider the age group of patients, their gender, quantitative cholesterol, metabolic and hereditary factors, as well as physical inactivity, smoking, organ damage, which act targets.
are four risk increase blood pressure in hypertension.The first degree is characterized by a low risk for these patients, who for the first ten years from the beginning of the pathological process, the likelihood of complications is reduced to 15%.For the second degree with an average risk - the likelihood of complications account for almost 20%.The third degree is determined by the risk of complications 30%.And the fourth degree is characterized by relatively high risk of complications, and more than 30%.
Risk factors that can worsen the disease and its prognosis, are modifiable and modifiable.In a first embodiment, at the disposal of contributing to the development of hypertensive disease factors in the form of a certain food, smoking, physical inactivity, may complete freedom from this disease.The second embodiment includes: patient age, hereditary and racial predisposition.
At 1st degree of essential hypertension is absolutely no risk factors, so the changed lifestyle, regular monitoring by a doctor to help stabilize the patient's condition.And in the case of BP reduction, drug therapy is appointed.
When 2nd-risk treatment is given after observation for six months.
patients with third degree is required to pass the examination with the purpose of medical treatment.
For the fourth degree of risk typical poor prognosis with a high probability of complications that require urgent examination with immediate appropriate treatment.
medical history hypertension
history of the disease is considered a major medical document, which is compiled for each patient, to apply to any therapeutic or prophylactic institution.
For example, when the patient arrives in the emergency room with a diagnosis of hypertension, which still must be confirmed first filled passport and general information about the incoming patient.In those cases when the doctor examines the patient initially still in the waiting room, the medical history is filled with the appointment of the same methods of diagnosis and drug therapy.But the admission of the patient immediately to the department of cardiology and intensive care, primary inspection and filling medical history performed by a doctor immediately in the office.
to start figuring out the patient's complaints, which give an idea of the characteristic features of this disease, as well as collateral.Sometimes they are so pronounced that you can immediately assume hypertension.In this case, patients complained of a headache in the morning the day with localization at the back, in combination with the weight of the head and staleness.However, they complain of poor sleep, irritability, decreased performance and memory.