thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs
thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs - a pathological process of an inflammatory nature, that develops in the vein wall through a nearby source of infection and is accompanied by thrombosis in their lumen.Almost 90% of people thrombophlebitis characterized by an arrangement of the lower extremities.In addition, thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs is characterized by multiple forms of flow - an acute form, subacute and chronic.
thrombophlebitis lower limb deep-seated hits vein and those that are on the surface of the legs, which is defined as the localization of inflammation and thrombus.In addition, the pathological process is purulent and purulent.Basically, under this condition understand inflammation and the formation of a blood clot in a vein localized under the skin, that is superficial.
thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs is considered to be a serious and dangerous pathology that without adequate methods for therapeutic treatment can cause various co
vein thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs
inflammation of the venous wall in conjunction with the formation of a blood clot called venous thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs.To date, scientists have know for sure that the lumen of the venous vessel obstruction by a thrombus, which is formed from a blood clot and inflammation of the vein wall - two closely related processes running parallel.
thrombophlebitis lower limbs affects mainly located on the surface veins, under the skin and deep muscle.As a rule, in the second case it is called phlebothrombosis.It is much more difficult and dangerous, but occurs less frequently first.
Causes of thrombophlebitis of veins of the lower limbs are the three major predisposing factor, and one of them is always much expressed by others.Such factors include, firstly, the damaged venous wall, a second, slow flow process and, thirdly, the increased coagulation.
In the first case, the venous wall veins may be damaged due to mechanical impact, and available in their refinement greatly increases the occurrence of injury.Adversely affect the venous vessels surgery, administration of drugs and production of catheters into the lumen of the vein.
at slowing the process of blood flow directly affects prolonged bed rest, plaster fixation as a result of the fracture, lower limb injury, characterized by crushing, that is happening compression fabrics that surround the vein.In addition, slowing blood flow contribute to some diseases SSS, such as heart failure, where the heart is quite difficult to pump the required amount of blood.Thus, in the lower limbs are formed stagnant processes and reduced blood flow.
But hypercoagulability can be in the presence of a congenital defect in the normal functioning of the circulatory system and acquired (infectious pathologies, hormonal disorders, reception of medicines, oncological pathologies).
basically an inflammatory process in the wall of the vein is aseptic character, as a reaction to the changed venous wall or form a blood clot.But sometimes the germs that are in the blood stream or near the vein are attached to blood clots and formed purulent thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs.
Once the clot formation process took place, it can spontaneously move around the vessel or its treatment, stop growing, and inflammation while gradually subsides.In this case, the reduction in size blood clot may partially or completely block the lumen in the vein, as it will lead to the cessation of blood flow and decrease on the venous vessel this site.Therefore, a risk that the clot can break minimized.
In another case, a blood clot and inflammation continue to evolve.Thus it is attached to one side wall of the vein, and the free end is located in the lumen.As a result of inflammation of the blood clot becomes unstable and loose, so any slightest impact on it can cause a separation.Thus, thrombophlebitis leg veins may contribute to severe complications such as pulmonary embolism.
with stable disease, a blood clot continues to grow up, destroying the valves communicating veins and penetrate into deep-seated veins, forming phlebothrombosis.And destroying the valves in the veins of all, on the surface, the perforating and deep, formed CVI.Almost 95% of patients thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities affects the defeat large vein under the skin and much less - small.
symptomatic picture of the pathological process depends on the form of the disease, which is thrombophlebitis, acute or chronic.Often vein thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities begins suddenly, without reason, and sometimes there are leg injuries.It is often noted the presence of the virus in a patient receiving contraceptives, accompanied by hypercoagulability.Also varices is a common cause of the disease.
As a rule, the local symptoms of thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities takes over the general state of health, which is marked as satisfactory.In the beginning, this pathology is characterized by the appearance of intense pain at the site of the thrombosed vein area, as well as restrictions on the movement of the limbs.At the site of the lesion Vienna becomes reddish, and with the progression of redness spreads much more.Furthermore, the temperature rises skin redness at the site.Struck Vienna in this area is a dense and painful cord.And if thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs captures the veins, the nodes acquire a characteristic density, soreness and increases several times.
Sometimes you can see swelling of the affected leg, but only in the area that is a violation of the venous wall, which distinguishes from phlebothrombosis thrombophlebitis.
Common symptoms consists of the rise in temperature, chills and appearance of absolute faintness.
Chronic thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs is characterized by long periods of exacerbation and over who have all of these symptoms.In the absence of sharpening period symptoms are largely absent.
recurrent thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities, can be formed in a variety of veins that were not damaged and is a migratory phlebitis.And this is considered to be a serious cause for careful examination, as this disease is accompanied by the development of tumors.
to survey thrombophlebitis leg veins used ultrasound, which refers to an informative and confirms existing disease, determines the location and duration of a blood clot, and also assesses the risk of the possibility of its separation.
Superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs
This pathological condition characterized by inflammation of the walls of superficial veins, located under the skin to a depth of two to three centimeters, due to the presence of an infectious focus and the formation of a blood clot in the venous lumen of the vessel.Quite often, the disease is a complication of varicose veins in the lower extremities.
Superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs is considered polyetiological disease processes that affect the formation of violating the integrity of the vein wall with the addition of infectious agents.In this case, these infections may enter the venous wall of the surrounding tissue inflamed or disseminated through the lymphatic and blood vessels.
superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs by a variety of chronic inflammatory lesions in the body (pneumonia, tuberculosis, dental caries, erysipelas, tonsillitis, flu).In addition, a significant role in the development of superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs play stagnant processes in the blood, impaired physical and chemical composition of the blood and hypercoagulation.
also has several contributing factors that trigger the development of thrombophlebitis of superficial veins of the lower extremities.Among them are: infectious pathology, traumatic injury, surgery, cancer, allergic processes, intravenous injection, pregnancy, oral contraceptives, obesity.
This disease is classified into infectious type (after childbirth, abortion, fever, operations and processes of purulent) and aseptic (with varicose veins, migrating phlebitis, after trauma and compression of, diseases SSS).
Superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities may occur in the form of pus, purulent, acute, subacute and chronic.
In acute diseases during the disease process begins suddenly, accompanied by subfebrile.There are pain along the affected vein, worse at the time of movement of the limbs.Sometimes there is swelling.On palpation reveal dense, painful nodes with congested skin over them.The disease can occur from two weeks to one month.
subacute characterized by minor swelling and aching.The temperature does not rise, and seals infiltrates almost painless, and skin becomes purple hue, and sometimes even black.The pathological process lasts up to several months.
Superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs occurs when chronic varicose veins and manifest fatigue while walking.On palpation palpable cord tight nature of some sites.On the affected leg swelling is formed, smooth night and appeared in the afternoon.Long flowing process is characterized trophic disorders.And with inadequate therapy develop complications in the form of dermatitis, eczema, abscesses, abscesses, venous thromboembolism somatic organs, sepsis, ischemic neuritis, lymphadenitis.
in diagnosing superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities there are no specific difficulties.Based on the painting reveal symptomatic localization of affected areas veins, prevalence, duration and degree of its inflammation.To confirm the diagnosis, some used survey methods, such as rheovasography, which determines the condition of the veins and their content;doplegrafiyu and angioscanning allowing consider the vascular structure, blood flow, its speed and the diameter of the bed vessel.
main treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs is considered to be conservative, and at its ineffectiveness resort to surgery.In the first case, the action of drugs antiagregatsionnogo (Trental, Troxevasin chimes);anti-inflammatory properties (Ortofen, Reopirin, Ibuprofen, Phenylbutazone);allergen (Suprastin, Tavegil);antibiotics, anticoagulants, elastic bandages, heparin ointment.
surgical method includes the operation of Troyanovo Trendellenburgu and crossectomy.Radical surgery is considered phlebectomy aimed at the prevention or elimination of embolism, as well as the root causes of disease.
thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs causes
Typically, this pathological process caused by the increase in the lower extremities veins characteristic of obstruction due to the formation of blood clots.With the defeat of the veins, localized under the skin, superficial thrombophlebitis develops, and at the defeat of the veins that are deep in the muscles, mean phlebothrombosis (deep vein thrombosis).This disease is more dangerous than the previous one and is characterized by the development of various complications of life-threatening (PE).
Very often, thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs occurs in people who move a little, as a result of a sedentary lifestyle, or bed rest for a sufficiently long period.
reason, with one of the main, thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities is the formation of blood clots, preventing normal blood flow.Typically, blood clots are caused by damage to the veins, but there are also congenital disorders in the system responsible for blood clotting.Such people are more likely to develop such diseases as thrombosis of the lower limbs.
Additional factors contributing to the formation of pathological process include reduced activity, work in a sitting position, long flights and travel.But to prevent the development of serious diseases need to do physical exercises, walk more, wearing compression underwear.All these preventive measures will only help reduce the risk of clot formation.
There are some factors that also provokes thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs.These include having a history stroke, which caused paralysis of the lower limbs;malignancies;pregnancy, childbirth and after;Obesity due to overweight and obesity;Reception of contraceptives based on hormones;hormone therapy;genetic predisposition and advanced age after sixty years.
thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs symptoms
Symptomatic pattern depends largely on the destruction of veins in the lower extremities.When thrombophlebitis veins beneath the skin, there is pain, redness, painful seal a cord in the course of the affected vein thrombus, a slight swelling in the area of inflammation.Patients with the satisfactory with little low-grade fever.Very rarely there may be a purulent fusion of a blood clot and cellulite.
In the case of progression, the disease spreads over a large surface to the groin vein and develops ascending thrombophlebitis.The same can happen in the iliac vein, which would be a real threat because of the possibility of separation of the blood clot and pulmonary embolism.The same complication develops when the pathological process in the small saphenous vein, if a blood clot in the vein penetrate below the knee on the perforating veins.
hard enough characterized for septic suppurative thrombophlebitis of the lower extremities, which can have complications of metastatic abscess in the brain, kidney, lung, limb cellulitis and sepsis.
Symptoms of thrombophlebitis deep-seated veins in the lower leg during the first two days remains virtually unchanged or obliterated painting is characterized by symptoms.The patients are in satisfactory condition, complained of pain in the calf of a minor nature, which intensified during the movement, there is a small swelling of the lower leg, and when palpation it causes pain.Positive Homans symptom confirms the defeat of deep vein thrombophlebitis.
In the case of thrombosis of the three pairs of deep-seated veins of the lower leg symptoms of the disease becomes pronounced.This produces a sharp pain, bursting with feeling, lower extremity strains and shin swells.Then there is cyanotic and the temperature rises throughout the body.
femoral vein thrombophlebitis, begins to swell slightly thigh injury during the Vienna painful to the touch.If the pathological process involved Vienna, located below the knee in conjunction with vein on the thigh, the leg swells, begins to hurt, and there are restrictions on movements.In the case of the spread of the pathological process in the proximal portion of the vein on the thigh, increases all stunned by limb pain intensifies, there is a distinct cyanosis.
severe form of thrombophlebitis of the lower limbs is considered ileofemoralny thrombosis, which is characterized by white and blue flegmaziey.In this case, there are pains in the front and inside of the thigh, calf and groin.The limb becomes much more strongly swells entire leg as a whole to the groin with the capture of the buttocks.The skin can be both pale and cyanotic.All of the veins in the thigh and groin pain caused by palpation.