Varicose veins - a pathological dilatation, on the surface, which is characterized by an increase in their diameter and length, resulting in a cylindrical, serpentine, sacciform and mixed type of changevenous trunks.Today varicose veins is widely common disorders, with women more likely than men suffer from almost 3 times.This is mainly due to the anatomical features of the body and certain load on the lower limbs during pregnancy.
Typically, varicose veins can be primary and secondary.In the first case the disease is caused by the weakness of the original wall of the large veins, which is localized under the skin, or congenital valve dysfunction.The development of secondary pathology veins affect thrombosis of deep-seated veins or acquired insufficiency of valvular apparatus due to the pregnancy, heavy physical exertion, prolonged standing, and so forth.
At the time of increase of the hydrostatic pressure in the veins, there is an expansion of the blood vessels in diamete
varicose veins of the lower extremities
This disease is characterized by the formation of venous walls of the bag-expansion serpentine tortuosity, increasing the length and valve insufficiency.
Typically, varicose veins of the lower limbs occurs in 20% of the population.In addition, prior to puberty it equally affects both boys and girls.But women in adulthood is much more susceptible to the defeat of varicose veins than men.Also, the number of infected people increases with the increase of age.This can be explained by hormonal rearrangement of the female body as a result of pregnancy, menstruation, which cause the weakened tone of veins, their expansion, a failure of valves communicating and saphenous veins, opening of arteriovenous shunts and blood circulation in the veins.
Today, the true cause of varicose veins of the lower extremities is unknown.It is believed that the lack of functioning of the valve and increase the pressure in the veins are the etiological cause of the disease.Given all the factors that predispose to the occurrence of a pathological process in the veins of the lower extremities, there are two types occurrence of varicose veins: primary and secondary.
primary veins on the surface characterized by a normal deep-seated veins.And in the event of a secondary varicose disease is not the last role played by the various complications of deep-seated veins, arteriovenous fistula, congenital absence or hypoplasia of the venous valves.
risk factors that contribute to the formation of varicose veins of the lower extremities, are: increased hydrostatic pressure in the venous trunks, the thinning of their walls, metabolic abnormalities in smooth muscle cells, the movement of blood from the veins to the surface deep-seated.This reverse movement of the blood in the form of vertical and horizontal reflux reflux uzloobraznogo causes gradual expansion and elongation of crimp veins that are located under the skin, that is the surface.The final link in the pathogenesis represented cellulite, dermatitis and trophic venous ulcers of the lower shin.
symptomatic picture of varicose veins of the lower extremities consists of patients' complaints to the existing veins that cause inconvenience cosmetic nature, a certain weight, and in some cases, pain in the lower limbs, cramps at night and trophic changes on the shins.
Extension veins can vary from minor "asterisks" reticular knots to large writhing trunks and nodes, plexus, which clearly identifies patients in an upright position.Almost 80% of lesions of the trunk and branches of large veins on the surface, and 10% are small saphenous vein.Furthermore, in 9% of patients have either venous lesion involved in the pathological process.
When palpation of these veins show firmness and elasticity of their consistency.They can be easily compressed, and the temperature of the skin over several nodes above unlike neporazhёnnyh portions.This is all due to the fact that arterial blood is discharged from arteriovenous anastomoses and origin of deep-seated vein via a communicating veins varices, which are located on the surface.For a patient in a horizontal position varices somewhat reduced in size, and reduces stress in the veins.Sometimes you can feel out minor changes to the fascia in those places where there is a connection with the genesis of perforating veins surface.
a result of progressive patient begins to experience fatigue in the legs indicated a certain heaviness and distension appear muscle cramps calf, and leg and foot swelling acquire and develop paresthesia.In addition, the legs swell mainly in the evening, but after sleeping the swelling goes away.
Quite often varicose veins complicated by acute thrombophlebitis of veins on the surface manifestations of erythema, threadlike, painful veins seal, which is characterized by the expansion and periflebita.Very often varicose node undergoes rupture as a result of minor injuries, and it leads to bleeding.Normally, blood from the ruptured site can rain jet and the patient sometimes loses a large enough quantity.
In addition, there is no specific difficulties in diagnosing varicose veins of the lower extremities, as well as in acceding to the CVI on the basis of patients' complaints, medical history and results of physical examination.
significant value in diagnosis is the ability to determine the status of the valves of the main vein and communicating the nature, as well as deep-seated vein patency assessment.
Varicose veins causes
This pathological process is characterized by veins, located on the surface under the skin and is associated with a lack of operation of the valves in the veins and in violation of their circulation.Varicose veins belongs to the most common cardiovascular disease among the working half of the population.
There are usually several contributing factors of the disease and its progression.A certain contribution of heredity in the appearance of varicose veins do not yet have the evidence.On the occurrence of this disease process can now be influenced by diet, lifestyle and state, due to changes in hormonal levels.
In addition, one of the fundamental risk factors for the disease is considered to be obese.And with increasing severity of obesity is increasing the frequency of occurrence of this disease.It is often triggered by physical inactivity varicose disease and malnutrition.Today, the population of developed countries eat products, which have a high degree of processing, however, they are not consumed vegetable fiber contained in raw fruits and vegetables.These fibers of vegetable origin are involved in strengthening the walls of blood vessels, prevent the formation of constipation chronic nature, which increases the pressure inside the peritoneum and form varicose veins.
the emergence of this pathological process due to the improper organization of the working process.Many people spend a considerable amount of time standing or sitting, depending on their work, which is quite bad for the valve apparatus veins of the lower extremities.In addition, unfavorable considered work related to heavy physical labor, especially in the form of a jerk the load on the legs while lifting weights.
Today adversely affect the system of blood flow in the veins of the long flowing crossings or flights that contribute to venous congestion in the legs and are risk factors for the formation of venous disorders.Besides, wearing tight underwear causes compression of the veins in the groin and corsets increase pressure inside the peritoneum, it is not recommended to wear them all the time.This also applies to the high-heeled shoes in the presence of more and uncomfortable arch supports.
pregnancy occurring again - it is a proven risk factor for the appearance of varicose veins.This can be explained by the increase in size of the uterus increases the pressure inside the peritoneum, and destroys progesterone contained in the venous wall and collagen fibers elastic origin.Also, diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, varying hormonal status, increased risk of developing the disease process.
Typical causes of varicose veins are the features of their structure on the lower extremities.There is a system of veins on the surface, that is, subcutaneous veins, such as small and large, as well as deep-seated vein system in the femur and tibia, and perforating veins which connect the two previous system.When normal blood circulation, blood flow in lower limbs occurs in 90% by deep-seated veins and 10% on the surface.But the blood moving toward the heart, and not vice versa, there are valves in the vein wall, which slammed do not allow blood to flow under the influence of the gravitational force from the top down.Also great value have muscle contractions, promotes normal blood flow.Additionally, upright developing blood stasis in the veins of the pressure begins to rise and this causes them to expand.Further the lack of functioning of the valve, which causes the valve leaflets nesmykaniya with the formation of wrong blood flow from the heart.
particularly rapid defeat of exposed deep-seated valves of veins as a result of the maximum load on them.And in order to reduce the excess pressure by means of perforating veins blood flows in the veins beneath the skin, which are not intended for a large quantity.All this leads to hyperinflation venous walls and ultimately forming characteristic varices.However, increasing the volume of blood continues to flow in the deep-seated veins, thereby forming a valve apparatus insufficiency of perforating veins without certain obstacles genesis of blood flow in a horizontal position first in the deep vessels, and then to the surface.And at the end of CVI develops symptoms such as swelling, pain and trophic ulcers.
Varicose veins symptoms
Varicose veins disease is characterized by localized under the skin, in the form of cylindrical or saccular changes.With this pathological disease appear on the surface of the skin of legs and feet twisted shape of the vein.Maximum occurrence of varicose veins is formed after long or heavy physical activity.Quite often, the veins dilate in young women during pregnancy or after it.
early stage of varicose disease is characterized by few and unspecific symptoms.At this point, patients become tired quickly with constant heavy legs, burning, bulging, especially after exercise.Also, sometimes there are edema and transient nature aching pain along the entire length of the veins.At the same time in the evening swells ankle and rear foot after a long static loads.Some features of their disappearance is a swelling in the morning after a night's rest.At this stage, are generally not visible signs of marked dilatation.However, these symptoms are the initial stage of treatment should be a signal of the patient to a specialist, to prevent the progression of varicose veins.
This disease is characterized by slow growth, sometimes for decades.Therefore, as a result of poor treatment of varicose veins in his progression forms of CVI (chronic venous insufficiency).
important symptoms are as spider veins, which are cobweb slightly dilated capillaries, almost visible under the skin.Sometimes the elimination of violations dishormonal character, excluding sauna, solarium allows you to forget once and for all about this disease as varicose veins.But most of these spider veins are the only sign of overflow veins on the surface and the formation of varicose veins.Therefore, the appearance of even a small sign of this should be a signal to consult a surgeon.
In addition, varicose veins is a discomfort from the cosmetic aspect of the question, so for such tasks doctors perform surgery.
Varicose veins degree
The disease can manifest itself in varying degrees of severity and characterized by different structure, which is related to its clinical symptoms.Typically, there are several types of structure on the surface varices.For the first type, the trunk, characterized by the expansion of the main trunk of the saphenous veins without joining them tributaries.The second type, or loose, reticular expansion is the presence of multiple branches.This type of varicose veins is revealed at the very beginning of the disease.But when mixed type occurs combination of the two previous ones, and this third type occurs much more frequently than others.
Symptoms of varicose veins is directly dependent on the stage of the pathological process, which are divided into compensation and decompensation subcompensation.
In addition, IBC varicose disease pathology distinguishes ulcer, inflammation, with the simultaneous presence of ulcers and inflammation in the lower extremities and veins without inflammation or ulcers.
for the first degree of varicose veins is characterized by moderately pronounced veins on the surface along the main trunk or branches without specific manifestations of venous insufficiency of the valves on the surface and communicating properties.Patients appear insignificant nature of pain in his leg, a certain heaviness, fatigue against the backdrop of long loads.Diagnostic tests are talking about a satisfactory function of the valves and the existing small veins under the skin indicate poor drainage work in the veins of the limb is affected.The first corresponds to the degree of BH compensatory stage of varicose veins.
second degree of varicose veins is characterized by the expansion of the superficial veins in the insolvency of their valves on the basis of the functional properties of the samples.The process violations of the outflow in the veins of the extremities develop lymphatic insufficiency, which is manifested edema of feet and legs.The characteristic swelling occurs after prolonged load on the lower limbs, which disappear after a rest in a horizontal position.In addition, there is the continuing nature of severe pain in the affected limb.For the second form of the disease characterized by an appropriate stage subkompensatsionnogo properties.
When the third degree of varicose veins is an expansion of the superficial veins and deep-seated valve dysfunction veins, perforating and subcutaneous, and this causes a permanent venous hypertension in the distal parts of the limbs.This is what causes a disturbance of microcirculation and the formation of trophic ulcers.In the region of the lower leg develops skin pigmentation with initial manifestations indurative pathological process.