phlebitis - this defeat major blood arteries, such as a vein in the form of inflammation and their gradual destruction.As a rule, phlebitis affects venous vessels of the lower limbs as a result of various risk factors, but mostly it is considered complication of varicose veins of the lower extremities.
phlebitis can be acute or chronic and occur in isolation.Violations occur in the wall of the veins, can become a cause of blood clots and the transition of the disease in thrombophlebitis.Very often, the inflammatory process occurs in the veins as a consequence of various infections, which penetrate into the human body.
There are several forms of phlebitis, which depend on the localization of the inflammatory process, such as endoflebit, periphlebitis and panflebit.
endoflebite When inflammation develops, which is accompanied by a violation of the inner wall of the vein.Quite often, this type of phlebitis occurs due to injury, that is a result of mechanical damage to the veins.So
periphlebitis characterized by inflammation with damage to the outer shell of the venous vessel.This form of phlebitis develops as a result of inflammation, which occurs in the tissue surrounding the vessel.
When panflebite defeat veins occur both inside and outside in the form of inflammation of her shell.
During the course of acute phlebitis appear pain in the affected extremity, fever and weakness develops.During the chronic phlebitis quite a long time the disease does not manifest itself by giving itself felt only in the periods of exacerbation.
addition, phlebitis depends on the object of defeat veins (superficial and deep-seated).When phlebitis disrupts the veins under the skin, it is evident seals that resemble protrusion of subcutaneous fat in the course of a venous vessel.But with the defeat of deep-seated veins, pain, temperature, and even chronic fatigue.
Basically phlebitis affects equally all sections of the population.This is due to the fact that the main causes of vascular lesions are infections and varicose veins, which may be subject to almost everything.Of course, with increasing age resulting in deterioration of the veins, the risk of phlebitis becomes somewhat higher.
most common type is phlebitis thrombophlebitis, at the site where the inflammatory process formed blood clots that can break off and cause pulmonary embolism, as well as the cause of death.Thrombophlebitis helps the weak tone of blood vessels and increased blood viscosity.Very often this form of the disease begins with the usual deep-seated veins acute phlebitis.
also a central phlebitis, which is characterized by vascular lesions of the brain;postinjection phlebitis - a reaction vessel in the administration of drugs;cubital phlebitis - the result of the chemicals introduced in the vein.As well as migrating phlebitis - the defeat of the superficial veins in the arms and legs with periodic recurrent manifestations and pylephlebitis that affects the largest Vienna abdomen.
phlebitis of the lower limbs
Phlebitis is characterized by inflammation of the venous wall of the vessel.With the defeat of the veins outside the shell develops periflibit lower limbs, the inner shell - endoflebit and inflammatory process that captures all of the choroid, causing panflebit.
Usually periflebit indicated in patients where the inflammatory process proceeds to the venous wall from its surrounding tissue.For the occurrence endoflebita characterized by injury of the veins or damage to its inner wall substantially after prolonged needle or catheter in the vessel during the infusion as well as after administration of hypertonic solutions properties.
On the occurrence of phlebitis of the lower limbs is significantly affected by varicose veins with its complications.Basically this disease is accompanied by thrombosis.And without appointment necessary treatment develop complications such as venous ulcers or abscess.Inflammation of veins can be caused by various types of pathogens, but often acts as an infectious agent strep.In addition, phlebitis of the lower limbs sometimes develops as a result of chemical burns venous vessel.
In some cases, phlebitis formed artificially.This applies, for example, sclerotherapy, which is used for the treatment of varicose veins and is based on the fact that the vein is entered a special substance that causes aseptic phlebitis, which resulted in the vein walls stick together.
main symptoms of phlebitis of the lower limbs consists of pain and redness of the skin all over the affected vein.It is usually observed at the initial stage of the disease and lesion superficial veins.During palpation of the affected and inflamed veins can detect dense nature painful to touch cord or infiltration, which indicates the involvement of the inflammation of the large subcutaneous tissue.
Very often, phlebitis and thrombophlebitis contributes to complications such as septic embolism nature, abscesses, and others.
phlebitis of the lower limbs can strike the vein localized at the surface and those that are deep enough.When acute course of superficial phlebitis Vienna stunned by causing pain, and it is somewhat strained.The skin over the inflamed vein thickens and becomes red, so you can watch the local gipertemiyu.Sometimes there are red streaks along the affected vein, the temperature rises and the patient feels overwhelmed.In chronic phlebitis subcutaneous veins symptomatic picture is somewhat flattened, and the occurrence of relapses is characterized by periodic exacerbation of the disease.
Acute deep-seated vein phlebitis seen total hyperthermia, pain and edema in the area of inflammation.The skin takes on a milky-white color with typical seals and redness at the site of the lesion.Typically, an acute form of phlebitis of the lower limbs is characterized by deep-seated venous complications in the form of blood clots with subsequent transition to the acute thrombophlebitis flowing.
for cerebral phlebitis characteristic headache, increased blood pressure and neurological symptoms.But pylephlebitis is expressed picture of purulent intoxication.In this case, the patient feels very badly with the appearance of weakness, vomiting, pain in the head, cutting cramping pain in the right side under the ribs and increasing jaundice.Then the hectic nature marked fever, which is accompanied by profuse sweating and chills.Furthermore, there is a risk of death.In some patients, the phlebitis becomes chronic with the development of further liver and kidney failure.
danger of phlebitis of the lower limbs is the development of thrombosis, venous thrombosis of the affected vessel, pulmonary embolism and chronic venous insufficiency, as well as abscesses and cellulitis.
main treatment for phlebitis considered conservative method of treatment.This topically applied compresses troksevazin, heparin and physiotherapy.In addition, apply anti-inflammatory drugs such as Reopirin, Phenylbutazone, aspirin, as well as those that normalizes trophism venous vessel (Courant Glivenol, Trental, Aescusan).
When inflammation of the vein wall is developed phlebitis, which can affect the outside (periphlebitis) and internal (endoflebit) of the vein wall, and two (panflebit) immediately.
underlying causes of phlebitis - the process of penetrating the wall of the vein of the microbial flora of the virulent nature.
periphlebitis When inflammation goes from the surrounding tissues in the vein resulting in an abscess, burn wounds, cellulitis, tuberculosis, etc. panaritiums. When inflammation of the nonspecific nature of the venous wall outside is characterized by puffiness and infiltrate.In the future, these manifestations penetrate the medial shell of the venous wall, destroying the muscle layer and are distributed on the endothelium.Typically formed mural thrombus, which causes thrombosis.With a favorable prognosis fleboskleroz formed, as a result of tuberculous lesions Department vein perivascular inflammation affects only its outer shell.
The development endoflebita directly affects venous vessel injury after prolonged catheter or a needle into a vein and introduced into the vessel and hypertensive sclerosing solution and varicose veins.In the process of endothelial damage of the vein wall are always formed mural thrombus.Against the background of tuberculous endoflebita in the vein of miliary tubercles are formed, and their fusion results in the formation of a polyp necrosis cheesy properties in the heart of Vienna.
For panflebita characterized by the development as a result of Mondor disease after abdominal trauma and chest infections, and no particular reason.As a rule, the inflammatory process leads to sclerosis of the veins and their obliteration.
When venous disease, which is characterized by inflammation of the vascular walls, developing phlebitis.Basically, this pathological process affects the veins in the lower limbs, and develops symptoms of the manifestations of actual patients of varicose veins.
Usually, phlebitis occurs simultaneously with comorbidities, among which thrombosis, thrombophlebitis subsequently rolling.For the disease characterized by inflammation accompanied by a venous vessel appearing thrombus.It thrombophlebitis is the most dangerous disease as a result of the peculiarities of its complications.In this case, the possible separation of thrombus, as well as its movement in the veins.All this may lead to the development of pulmonary embolism which in most cases causes death.
main symptoms of phlebitis consists of redness of the skin over the entire length of the affected vein and the characteristic pain.All these manifestations, usually in the initial stage of phlebitis.
But according to defeat vein phlebitis distinguish superficial and deep-seated vein phlebitis.Further, this disease can occur both in acute and chronic.In a first embodiment of phlebitis stunned by Vienna becomes tense, the patient feels a certain pain in this area, there is flushing of the skin on the affected limb, as well as a seal.Also, when palpation can determine the nature of the local gipertemiyu and redness of the entire length of the inflamed veins.Patients in the presence of these symptoms feel overwhelmed, they have a weakness throughout the body and sometimes fever.
phlebitis chronic form is characterized by smoothness symptomatic picture with periodic exacerbations of the disease.To detect relapses characterized all of the above symptoms.
Acute phlebitis deep-seated veins marked general hyperthermia;at the site of inflammation there is some pain and swelling, and later the skin of the affected limb becomes white coloring.In this case, the skin is not marked redness and sealing.However, the lack of appropriate treatment, causes the formation of blood clots and thus develop an acute form of thrombophlebitis.
Symptoms of cerebral phlebitis is the emergence of the patient headache, increased blood pressure, the emergence of a variety of disorders of neurological origin.But if phlebitis affects venous vessels, localized on the penis, there is a fairly sharp pain, sexual organ becomes edematous and changes its color, becoming a bluish.
When phlebitis neck area when the affected collar veins, that is, when pylephlebitis, patients rather strongly expressed purulent intoxication, they feel weak, they are constantly headache, vomiting occurs, increases jaundice and noted the pain of cutting cramping character right.In the future condition of the patients can be dramatically worse, that is, perhaps, the emergence of hectic fever accompanied by shaking chills and heavy sweats.This form of the disease is very danger of death.And at a certain category of patients pylephlebitis (inflammation of the vascular neck area) develops into a chronic, thereby provoking the defective functioning of the liver and kidneys.It is therefore very important to detect phlebitis still in the early stages.
It is also important to remember the presence of phlebitis of the strict rules and the introduction of intravenous injection, to prevent the spread of disease and pustular time to carry out their treatment, as well as treatment.But patients with varicose veins should strictly follow the instructions of your doctor.
Phlebitis on the hand
Usually, phlebitis is characterized by inflammation of the venous vessel wall and mainly affects the veins of the lower extremities.But since in the modern world has grown quite addiction, and are widely disseminated intravenous interventions outside the institutions of a medical structure (treatment of drinking bouts in the home environment, the nature of the event detoxification and so on.) Significantly increased the number of phlebitis in the upper extremities.
Moreover, the introduction into the vein of highly aggressive chemical solvents which are used in the preparation of surrogate means narcotic effect primarily cause inflammation of the lining of the vessel or venous endoflebita.Very often, this form of phlebitis in his arms developed as a consequence of an intravenous bolus of drugs, as well as the use of such hypertonic concentrations as calcium chloride, potassium chloride, doxycyline or 40% solution of glucose and others.
But aseptic during the pathological processIt leads to the development fleboskleroza characterized forms such as the presence of luminal narrowing in the veins and the complete obliteration of the venous lumen.
After the histological examination revealed the formation of fibrous tissue at the site of elastic fibers and smooth muscle cells.Collagen fibers are coarse nature extend to all layers of the vessel wall veins and connective tissue, thus forming an occlusive lumen.
When phlebitis of superficial veins of the upper extremities appear strong properties of pain at the affected veins.From the beginning of the inflammatory process rather quickly evolving and growing bright red skin.This redness spreads from the injection place in the proximal direction in the course of the affected and inflamed veins.It is also noted swelling of the soft tissue and subcutaneous tissue with the formation of infiltrates.Regional lymph nodes are enlarged and somewhat painful on palpation.The temperature rises to almost 38 ° C.
venous wall at the macroscopic level is characterized by irregular thickening, rigidity, whitish or sometimes yellowish shade with a view of the harness from the connective tissue.As a rule, phlebitis in her arms flows for three weeks, and the outcome of inflammation - a hardening of the venous vessels all along.Visual inspection of Vienna reminds dense subcutaneous harness and drug addicts for a long time preserved the traces of injections in the form of dark spots.
Change venous vessel wall, as well as physical and chemical composition of the blood, slow process of blood flow, coagulation disorders, and circulation are antisvёrtyvaniya reasons Postinjection phlebitis.