cholesterol plaques - a pathological accumulation of fat-like substances (cholesterol), calcium, waste connective tissue and fat in the walls of blood vessels.There is a definite link between the increased amount of cholesterol, fat intake and the risk of diseases SSS
Cholesterol is included in its composition, it is produced in the human liver body.It is simply necessary for the construction of membranes of cells and nerve fibers, and it is involved in the production of hormones.In addition, cholesterol is simply necessary for the connection is very important substances: corticosteroids, which are involved in enhancing immunity, promote resistance to stress and help the body resist inflammatory reactions.Cholesterol is needed vitamin D, which enhances calcium absorption processes, and that preventive measures for osteoporosis;sex hormones, which are responsible for the birth rate;to produce bile acids.Thus, such a body cholesterol is needed.It is formed by lipoproteins
Almost 99% of the fatal cholesterol plaques found after fifty years, and after twenty years - nearly one in six of the deceased.Sometimes cholesterol plaques in the vessel is broken and poured the contents out of it, and then formed a clot of blood - a blood clot.
When the content in the blood of more than 200 mg% cholesterol necessarily be deposited on the walls of blood vessels characteristic pathological education.First, they will be separate yellowish spots, and then, and the plaque.In existing blood cholesterol to 240 mg% significantly increased the formation of atherosclerosis almost twice as above 240 mg% - five times.Unfortunately, a very small number of people know what percentage of cholesterol in their blood.
cholesterol plaques in blood vessels
Their appearance in the vessels indicates the development of diseases such as atherosclerosis.
cholesterol plaques are formed on the rough walls of blood vessels in the form of layers of fat that appears as a result of impaired metabolism.This disease can affect the medium and large arteries.Therefore, today the main task of the modern world of medicine is prevention and treatment of cholesterol plaques, which are located in the lumen of blood vessels, and in severe cases they contribute to clogging.
cholesterol plaques in the vessels consist of clusters of cells within and outside the fats and proliferation of smooth muscle cells and connective tissue.In it there is a damage protective zone endothelium which contributes to the formation of parietal thrombi character which largely disturb the blood flow in the damaged vessel.Blood clot in the future partially destroyed, and their particles are transferred as a result of blood flow to the small blood vessels and cause thromboembolism, which is a frequent cause of death, stroke, heart attack, heart muscle in the acute form.
Since cholesterol plaques contribute to a sharp decrease in the elasticity of the vessel and its extensibility, it becomes a cause of increased vascular resistance to blood flow and rise in blood pressure in the affected vessel.If the pathological process affects the aorta and other large vessels of the character, then there is an increase not only of the local intravascular pressure, but the general, systemic blood pressure.Furthermore, the vessel is completely filled with plaque-can not become wider in response to increased demand of oxygen under increased their work.Thus, ischemia develops due to the load.
Statistically, cholesterol plaques can affect blood vessels are always and not depend on the age group and type of human activities.And almost 10% of lesions between the ages of fifteen years, 30% found among adult half of the population and 80% - are elderly.
cholesterol plaque causes
On the occurrence of pathological processes directly affect cholesterol plaques: Violation of fat (lipid) metabolism, a hereditary genetic predisposition and the condition of the vessel wall.Cholesterol is a fat and performs a significant number of functions in the body.It is required it as a construction material for the cell wall is composed of vitamins and hormones, which are necessary for the normal life of the organism.Almost 75% of the cholesterol synthesis in the liver goes, and everything else comes food.The cholesterol in the human body is a complex combination of fats and proteins (lipoproteins), which are transferred from the bloodstream to various tissues of the liver, and in excess of the content of cholesterol, the reverse process of return and recycle lipoproteins.It is when this process is disrupted, formed in the vessels of cholesterol plaques and atherosclerosis develops.
main reason for the formation of cholesterol is low-density lipoprotein carrying cholesterol transport functions from the main hematopoietic organ (liver) in the blood vessels.Exceeds the level of LDL increases the risk of atherosclerosis.Antiatherogenic form lipoproteins, which performs the reverse transport of cholesterol from tissues to the liver, called lipoproteins, a high density lipoproteins (HDL).This form cleanses the cells from an excessive amount of cholesterol.Elevated levels of LDL and low HDL contribute to formation of cholesterol plaques.
Usually, the first change in the vessel walls of large and medium size appear in his youth and through the entire process of evolution to the formation of cholesterol plaques that are characteristic of the formation after forty years.Vascular lesions observed in the age of twenty percent of the cases in seventeen to forty years - 70%, and after fifty years - 90%.
cholesterol plaques characterized by penetration into the vessel wall fibrin, cholesterol, and also some other substances.With an excess of cholesterol, it becomes large, and this interferes with normal blood flow in the constriction of blood vessels.Thus, there is a decrease in blood flow, inflammation develops in the vessels, forming clots that can break off and block the vital blood vessels, which will result in the termination of the delivery of blood to the organs.
on the development and the formation of cholesterol plaques influence factors which are amenable to elimination and adjustment, as well as those that can not be changed.The first group of factors includes the image of the patient's life: physical inactivity, smoking, stress state of nature, abuse of alcohol and fatty foods with a significant amount of cholesterol;hypertension;hypercholesterolemia;diabetes with the glucose level of greater than 6 mmol / L of fasting;abdominal obesity nature.The second group of factors relates primarily age of patients - a man after forty-five years and women over fifty, or early onset of menopause.Also, in men cholesterol plaques in blood vessels appear much earlier than women.And the last is a predisposing factor for familial hypercholesterolemia at the genetic level.It usually refers to a stroke, heart attack, sudden death of a close relative and 55 years for men and women to 65 years.
All these unfavorable factors affect the integrity of the inner layer of blood vessels due to their abnormal education and contribute to the development of serious pathologies SSS
cholesterol plaques symptoms
long time, symptoms of existing cholesterol plaques in the arteries is clearly not manifest itself.But over certain amount of time they undergo transformation under the influence of the physical nature of the load, stress as a result of emotions, heart rhythm disorders and high blood pressure.All these factors cause cracks or breaks of cholesterol, and their unstable surface formed thrombi, contributing to the process of progressive narrowing of blood vessels.After that blood circulation in the tissues and organs which contributes to the appearance of clinical symptoms, the patient is already noticeable.
very important public vessels localized pathological process.On this depends the development of certain diseases from their symptoms.Cholesterol plaques are the basis of many diseases such as angina, heart failure, arrhythmia, sudden death, heart attack;cerebrovascular diseases;atherosclerosis various arteries and aorta.
The formation of cholesterol plaque causes the simultaneous destruction of several vessels.Stroke increases the chance of a heart attack the heart muscle in these patients almost three times, and in the case of peripheral arterial disease myocardial infarction may occur four times more often, and stroke - has tripled.
Symptomatic picture in lesions of the coronary arteries of plaque composed of a variety of symptoms, which are characterized by attacks of angina pectoris, myocardial infarction and the appearance of inadequate functioning of the heart.Furthermore, all forms of IBS occur in the result characteristic vascular lesions.On the manifestations of cardiac nature has to almost half of plaque lesions.For example, aortic pathology frequently observed after sixty years.And in pathological processes in the thoracic aorta, patients complain of intense pain that is baked in the sternum and radiating to the neck, back and upper abdomen.Against the background of stress and physical exertion, this pain becomes stronger.Also, it can continue for days, periodically wax and wane, what distinguishes the pain from that which is typical for angina.
Sometimes the patient is disturbed swallowing, the voice becomes hoarse appears whirling head and the patient may lose consciousness.With the defeat of the aorta in the abdomen marked abdominal pain with some swelling and constipation.If cholesterol plaques are formed at the location where the aorta divides into branches (aortic bifurcation) then develop symptoms of intermittent claudication, lower extremities are cold formed on the toes ulcers often occur impotence.
One of the serious complications of aortic considered aortic aneurysm and its rupture.With the defeat of mesenteric vascular properties appear sharp pain, burning, cutting character in the abdomen during the meal, which extend for nearly three hours, and then observed swelling and violation of the chair.In those moments when cholesterol plaques affect the renal arteries, and blood pressure rises steadily changing the composition of urine.But with the defeat of the arteries in the periphery, there are signs of weakness with fatigue the muscles of the lower limbs and legs at the same time begin to freeze, and then there is pain while walking (intermittent claudication).
Treatment of cholesterol
In order to proceed with the treatment, carried out with a primary diagnosis of pressure measurement, determination of the weight and the identification of risk factors (obesity, diabetes, hypertension).
If you suspect the presence of cholesterol plaques on the walls of blood vessels appoint a cardiologist, ophthalmologist, neurologist, nephrologist, vascular surgeon.And to clarify the degree of destruction carried out an electrocardiogram, with the use of stress tests;Ultrasound of the heart and aorta;angiography, ultrasound inside blood vessels, koronagrafiyu.These methods can detect cholesterol plaques and generally to assess the damage.But duplex scanning, as well as triplex, allow us to study blood flow and the presence of a pathological process in the carotid artery, abdominal aortic department, in the arteries of the extremities.MRI imaging is carried out of the walls of blood vessels and cholesterol plaques.
without specific clinical manifestations of a total cholesterol over five mmol / L treatment starts with lifestyle modifications.To begin waive nicotine and alcohol, adhere to anti-cholesterol diet and increase physical activity.After you have achieved performance up to five total cholesterol and LDL below three, the re-examination is recommended to go through five years.
But patients at high risk and the general cholesterol than five mmol / l recommend lifestyle changes for three months followed by a second survey.When performance standards achieved cholesterol, control blood lipids annually.In the case of high-risk (more than 5%) recourse to medication.
As a rule, all patients with signs of vascular lesions of plaque location prescribe any radical change in lifestyle and treatment with drugs.
The basis of this treatment is varied, no cholesterol, food.This applies also to obesity and diabetes, and hypertension.The daily diet calorie foods should maintain a normal weight patients.Recommend to limit animal fats, replacing them with vegetable.You also need to eat every day 400 grams of fruit and vegetables;meat is low-fat varieties and poultry without skin, fermented milk purged properties, low-fat cottage cheese, bread, bran, sea fish and oceanic.Be sure to limit your salt intake to one teaspoon per day.Thus, the diet can reduce cholesterol, and thereby remove cholesterol plaques to almost 10%.
to normalize body weight corresponding to the chosen diet, which takes into account the patient's age and comorbidities.In addition, patients who are not marked symptomatic manifestations of vascular lesions, prescribe the nature of the physical load of up to 40 minutes daily.And in the pathology of SSSrecommend walking, dancing, swimming at a moderate intensity of 1 or 1.5 hours per week.We can not allow the power load.It is advisable to go and not be used in moving vehicles.
important point in the treatment of cholesterol is considered quitting smoking, as it dramatically reduces the HDL pathological effects on blood vessels, violates the rheological properties of blood.And all this increases the risk of disease and death by 20% of the complications of cardiovascular nature.People who smoke are rising almost twice the risk of stroke, as opposed to smoking.The same applies to alcohol.The use of different types of drugs also leads to sharp fluctuations in pressure causes inflammation in the blood vessels and disrupts the blood.
for the treatment of pathologies caused by vascular lesions of plaque, used four groups of drugs lipid-lowering properties, that is, those that lower cholesterol.Among them are niacin, statins, fibrates and bile acids sekverstanty.These drugs have a stabilizing effect in respect of cholesterol, help to improve the work of the endothelium, suspend the occurrence of atherosclerosis and thereby influence the processes of lipid metabolism.
Often in clinical practice using statins to reduce mortality and prevent complications SSSThe dosage of drugs chosen strictly individually, and the drug is taken only for the night.Also sometimes prescribed essential phospholipids that are values of auxiliary agents based contains fish oil.They are always used in treatment, in combination with statins.
In some cases, for the treatment of cholesterol plaques in blood vessels using surgical therapies.It is carried out in case of occurrence of various complications of the underlying disease.Treatment with surgery helps to restore the permeability of blood vessels, that is, allows for revascularization.