occlusive disease - is slowly developing vascular disease with predominant involvement in the pathological process of the lower limb arteries.In the process of the disease is a slow reduction in the lumen of the artery, leading in time to full closure. In this case, body tissue involved in the process, begin to suffer from a lack of blood supply, leading to gangrene (spontaneous gangrene).
occlusive disease - disease of a systemic nature, with a predominant leg defeat.The disease in the medical community dubbed "smoker's disease" and not just - between addiction and pathological condition that there is indeed a link.
occlusive disease of the lower extremities
for obliterating endarteritis is typical for cyclic, that is-acute and well-being to each other alternate.In most cases, occlusive disease occurs in chronic but occasionally occur and variations acute development.In the early development of the disease in the vascular wall of any organic changes were observed in
during the course of obliterating endarteritis supply of biological tissues of the affected area is rapidly deteriorating, causing the formation of foot ulcers or gangrene (usually fingers).Development of obliterating endarteritis leg takes place in five phases.
♦ Step one - degeneration of nerve endings.At this stage of the vessel (usually an artery, but sometimes damaged and vein) is slightly narrower.Due to the formation of collateral blood supply hardly suffers.This step does not have any specific symptoms and severe clinic, but occlusive disease has rapidly progressed.
♦ Step Two - a spasm of the arteries of large caliber.Formed at the first stage of obliterating endarteritis collaterals no longer cope with the rapidly increasing workload, so there are the first warning signs: rapidly increasing fatigue, feeling cold in the legs, and later joined and lameness.Already in the second stage should immediately start treatment.
♦ Step three - the rapid growth of connective tissue.At this stage, the cells of the connective tissue of absolutely all layers of the vascular wall feet are beginning to grow.This process leads to the fact that pain disturb a person with endarteritis obliterans not only during movement, but also alone.Pulsation in the arteries of the legs is reduced significantly.Such a state is considered the running phase of the disease of the arteries of the lower extremities.
♦ Step four - a total occlusion or thrombosis limb vessels.In this phase of developing irreversible: nekrotizirovanie and gangrene.
♦ Step five - these changes begin to occur not only in the vessels of the legs, but also in many organs.At this stage the brain affected vessels and heart.
occlusive disease of the upper extremities
upper limb occlusive disease found in patients much less frequently than the lower.In most clinical manifestations it is the same as the obliterating endarteritis feet.Steps that passes pathological process are the same.At first the sick person does not notice any change in his state of health, although the disease is already in progress.Later, beginning to appear the first signs that should alert and be an occasion for going to the doctor.This feeling cold in your hands, unpleasant tingling, weakness, rapid fatigue.After a while, added to the above manifestations pain of varying intensity and character.
often aching pain appears during the execution of any action (home affairs, heavy lifting, etc.), And the progression of obliterating endarteritis hand, the pain is almost constant symptom, worried man, even at night.If this is already enough running stage of the disease is not treated, it appears on the skin ulcers, necrosis of tissue sections.Later, the disease becomes systemic.
occlusive disease causes
occlusive disease has not yet been studied by experts in full, so the nature of its origin has not yet been established.Most doctors believe that the development of the disease stimulate autoimmune antibodies.They cause damage to artery walls, launching the process of proliferation of connective tissues, because of which the receptacle and tapers.Many scientists believe that occlusive disease occurs due to regular self-poisoning by nicotine, frequent hypothermia or emotional turmoil.
factors predisposing to the disease: smoking, regular hypothermia, leading to prolonged vasospasm, frostbite of the extremities in history.In addition to these factors, which increase the risk of the disease, may trigger the development of the pathology traumatic injury, chronic infectious processes, multiple neuritis.
During much research doctors and scientists concluded that the theories of obliterating endarteritis four.The first place is given to the effects of atherosclerotic (ie the development of atherosclerosis at a young age).In second place are infectious and toxic agents (a variety of infections, including fungal infections).Third place went to pathological changes in the blood coagulation system.The last reason is allergic to tobacco (hypersensitivity to the components of tobacco smoke, which people can not even guess).
occlusive disease symptoms
very first call, which should attract attention, it is a weakness in the limbs, and rapid fatigue.Sick obliterating endarteritis begins to notice that it is increasingly tired after a long walk or standing, it seems that the legs "buzz."Leather leg eventually becomes more cold and dry.First cold snap - sporadic cases and later that feeling never leaves, even in warm socks and a blanket.
The person has an increased sensitivity to cold feet, which causes wear warm shoes, even in the warm season.Periodically, a man begins to disturb the damaged limb numbness, feeling light tingling or pins and needles.
Over time the process has already acquired a protracted course, and vessels have undergone significant changes, and suffered hemodynamics, the temperature of the feet begins to differ significantly from the temperature of the body.Reduced blood flow leads to the fact that the legs become pale and cold, and the toes very different in color from the entire foot.They acquire a bluish or blue-red hue.Cheerleaders must be patient and increased separation of sweat on the injured limb.
In the later stages of the disease the person feels quite intense pain in the feet, legs.Discomfort forcing the patient to make a break when walking and wait until the pain subsides.This symptom is called intermittent claudication.Vessels calf muscles much narrower, because of what is difficult oxygen supply.The result is a spasm, becoming the cause of pain.During the rest (when stopped) leg muscles require less oxygen, blood flow increases, the spasm fades and the pain disappears.
As the obliterating endarteritis distance and walking speed decreases.Changes are exposed and nails - they become cyanotic, brittle, exposed to deformation due to poor nutrition of the nail bed.If a person is progressing occlusive disease clinic is complemented by a strong decrease in the intensity of the pulsation of the arteries back of the foot.At this stage, walking seizures begin to emerge, and later they are already concerned at rest.If you do not treat occlusive disease at this stage begin to form edema and then sores on the skin.The most serious and dangerous manifestation is nekrotizirovanie tissues.
occlusive disease treatment
If on the basis of the detailed displays of a person suspected occlusive disease diagnostics will not be hard work.Now verify the disease helps doctors to the latest methods of diagnosis tools that let you specify the degree of damage to the vessel wall.
acquired quite popular nowadays Doppler (a diagnostic method using ultrasound).In addition, the method is widely used bulk sphygmography, capillaroscopy, rheovasography, plethysmography, duplex scanning of vessels.All these methods are quite informative, cheap and simple.Also a big plus is their atraumatic and to conduct research not only in the hospital but also in the conditions of outpatient clinics.Exceptionally inpatient made radiopaque angiography.If the doctor has any doubts, he shall designate additional research.From additional studies are common techniques such as diagnosis by Voll, vegetorezonansnoe diagnostic study.
doctor may appoint a person with suspected arterial occlusive disease and complex investigations.If the main goal - to find out when the process began to develop, and what changes have already undergo tissue prescribe ultrasound diagnostics in conjunction with digital radiography.If you want to learn all about the state of the energy channels, to help specialist will always pulse diagnosis.This method helps to correctly assign treatment to each patient individually and in accordance with the degree and severity of established obliterating endarteritis.
If attentive to their health and well-being in the changes applied to the early days of the disease, to verify the diagnosis in the early stages to help very sensitive and informative method - vegetative-resonant diagnostics.It helps detect failure or, conversely, redundancy leading meridian.And to know in detail what processes occur in a particular area of the body, help thermography.
Voll diagnostics by the method helps to establish the cause and a consequence of abnormal conditions to find pathogens (detects the presence of viral, bacterial agents, and fungi).This method electropunctural.If you need a doctor to figure out any changes in the illness suffered other organs, he will appoint the clinical and biochemical analyzes.
treat occlusive disease should be started at the first manifestations, as in the later stages of recovery can not be achieved.As soon as the first signs of (cooling, tingling, fatigue, limb), it is necessary to take action.
first thing is to get rid of provoking the development of obliterating endarteritis factors: smoking, hypothermia, the use of alcohol, since all it causes spasms of blood vessels.It is necessary to protect the affected limb: to avoid damage, injury, wear shoes with a size greater than usual (it should not compress the foot and be dry).It should also start to wear socks even in the summer, and carefully follow the hygiene of the feet.Limbs when occlusive disease should be washed twice a day in warm water with soap.If you start worrying sweating of the feet that often happens in this disease, after hygienic toilets should wipe your feet with a cotton ball soaked in 70% alcohol.
After the adverse impact of factors stopped, start acting drugs, eliminates spasms: antispasmodics and ganglioblokatorami.Among antispasmodic used Halidorum, Nospanum, Vazodilan among ganglioblokatorov - hexon, Diprofen.Halidorum usually administered orally, in exceptional severe cases, injected into a vein, artery, muscle.The standard dosage - hundred milligrams postprandial every six to eight hours.It is prescribed rate on 14-21 day.The course is repeated at the discretion of the doctor.Nospanum occlusive disease when administered orally often twice a day at 0.04-0.08 grams.In the later stages of the disease the doctor may prescribe intraarterial administration of the drug into the body.For injection, take a two-percent solution shpy in the amount of two to four milliliters per injection.It is important to know that no-silos is strictly forbidden to be used in patients with concomitant glaucoma and prostatic hypertrophy.
hexon administered both orally and subcutaneously or intramuscularly.He was appointed interior in the form of solution or powder (of 0.1-0.25 grams).Parenterally administered hexon two percent of 0.01-0.03 grams.After the introduction of the drug into the body a person should lie down for at least an hour.Usually means prescribed courses of 7-21 day, then make a break for a month and then repeated drug treatment.
Diprofen - a tool that can help reduce pain and stabilize the blood circulation.Take it orally twice a day.The dosage is selected with consideration of the development of obliterating endarteritis, usually at a time needed from one to four tablets of the drug.Relief comes at the end of the first week of treatment this drug.The duration of the course not more than twenty days.The patient should be warned that the treatment Diprofenom may be some unpleasant symptoms: numbness of the mouth, slight dizziness, nausea in the morning.These effects do not require additional treatment, and go away.
With intense pain accompanying occlusive disease, shows the introduction of the scheme in the treatment of pain medications.If pain is very strong, carry out intra-arterial injection of one percent Novocain, epidural.
required in the treatment of obliterating endarteritis using antisense drugs.The most common Tavegil, pipolfen, Suprastin.Usually tavegil daily amount is two milligrams.The daily dose is divided into two.If the need arises, the dosage can be increased to six milligrams.If the drug is administered by injection, administered two milligrams twice a day.It is important to know: the treatment Tavegilom alcohol and alcohol-based preparations (tinctures, syrups) is impossible.Pipolphenum be administered in the minimum dosage that gives the desired effect.Inside the drug is prescribed for twenty-five milligrams once a day.If there is no effect, you can drink a double dose, divided into two doses with an interval of twelve hours.The vein Pipolphenum administered at a dose of 12.5 milligrams to 25 milligrams.Start at the smallest dose administered once every six hours, and only in case of failure of the means to increase the amount per injection, and reduce the time between doses up to four hours.It should warn the patient that during the treatment of obliterating endarteritis this drug may cause drowsiness, blurred vision, some agitation.If the side effects are too strong, treatment should be discontinued and replaced by another drug.The daily dose can reach suprastin hundred milligrams.Usually the drug is taken three or four times a day for one tablet.Suprastin intravenously administered only in severe cases.At day make one or two injections in one milliliter of the preparation.Special care is a medicine prescribed to people in old age, people with a history of liver disease, kidney disease.
In order to improve the rheology of the blood, treatment administered Poliglyukin, nicotine, or acetylsalicylic acid, Reopoligljukin.Reopoliglyukin and Poliglyukin used, taking into account individual peculiarities of obliterating endarteritis in individual patients.Before you put a drip with these drugs, a person needs to do a skin test, as may develop allergies.A preferred route of administration of nicotinic acid - intravenously as an injection into the muscle under the skin and is extremely painful.For the treatment of this disease using a one percent acid, administered once a day for one milliliter.Before you make the first shot, the person should be warned that he might feel the heat.