Vascular disease



CVI photo CVI (chronic venous insufficiency) - is not just a disease of certain veins of the extremities in CVI includes a range of different lesions of the venous vasculature.For CVI rank them all because of the general principles of defeat: venous insufficiency not operate fully the valve structure of the veins.This is due to various harmful factors: as a consequence of hereditary diseases of vascular valves (eg, weakness, tendon ligaments that support these valves), and because of various acquired disorders.

Because of the poor performance of the blood vascular valves significantly changes the speed of their movement, the individual structures of the body do not get the blood provide.Of course, poor blood supply of tissues will lead them to "starvation" and the subsequent gradual death.

identifies the following classification of chronic venous insufficiency: varicose defeat venous network of the lower limbs;postthrombotic lesions syndrome (PTS);thrombotic lesions veins.

CVI causes

Due to the fact that this disease is a component separate from other pathologies, and the various reasons at CVI.

varicose pathologies are the main cause of various types of valves, vascular insufficiency.They can occur at CVI because of the different situations: when a certain status of the organism (a vivid example of this - a pregnancy), and transferred to the "inherited" from the parent defects connective membrane veins and aggravated conditions of life and work (as an example - a long "standing "work).

As a result of all of these factors start CVI gradually stretched wall of the vein.For varicose veins should be the emergence of its valve insufficiency: since the volume of veins is increased and the valve remains the same size, it simply can not flap closed.A similar situation is described by the manifestation of cardiac malformations in the chambers of the heart: it just can stretch the heart chambers and valves do not close.

But as the valve the vein is no longer protect it from a possible reverse streaks of blood when the heart contracts, the affected areas veins run like casts.This leads to the fact that the vasculature is more blood than is needed.So as a normal person's life to make the pumping of blood from the lower divisions is not easy enough (the heart is necessary to apply some effort), then the CVI to do it even more difficult.As a result, in the lower part of the systemic circulation built up a large amount of blood.These congestions cause various pathological processes in tissues near which they are located.

When postthrombophlebitic option CVI trigger element will impact the disease - acute thrombophlebitis option.When thrombotic occlusion of the vein section, the burden to establish the path for the blood takes on a compensatory copper vessels.For a while, the blood passes through these "spare" tracks.But usually such replacement vessels are very thin and are not designed for continuous operation of large flows of blood.As a result, these vessels are gradually wear out and expand, there CVI.

CVI symptoms

Among the many different symptoms characteristic for each patient individually and CVI depending on its grade and stage, isolated bright key CVI symptoms.

first in the initial stages of CVI will attend complaints of heaviness and pain in the legs after exercise.In principle, a sign of fairly innocuous and typical of many people.But the terrible harbinger of CVI he will be when this symptom occurs on initially favorable background: until the first signs of chronic venous insufficiency, the patient will be possible to say that he had previously not noticed anything like that.

second possible indicator of CVI are swelling.Edema will also be compromised by stress, especially for a normal person.Furthermore, the higher the load, the larger in magnitude will swelling in CVI.

Third, and most striking sign of CVI will be significantly enhanced appearance, prominent eye, superficial veins.The reason for their appearance is described above: this subsidiary veins which expand due to the fact that chased through a large volume of blood.

also a wealth of clinical rather strongly determine the stage of CVI.There are three stages: the stage of compensated manifestations;the stage at which a part of the manifestations of still compensated, and some out of control of the organism;and the stage when all or almost all manifestations of chronic venous insufficiency are out of control and function is already lost can not be recovered by the body.

In the initial stage is often possible to find the initial expansion of the venous network.Usually at this stage CVI showed no swelling or pain.

When CVI stage with partial loss of body control pathological processes appear almost immediately the first pain and swelling.Swelling at this stage CVI appear in an upright position (ie, the position with the maximum load on the lower part of the great circle).But horizontal swelling this stage may disappear.

The CVI stage where all pathological signs emerge from the control of the body, characterized by a bright blossoming picture of CVI.Swelling and pain will be strong enough to torment the patient even during sleep.In addition, the company has added to their seizures.Also at this stage will trophic skin damage in places where vessels struck by CVI.

also in the last stage of CVI appear and local neurological complications.They lead to the loss of the pathological area it needed moisture, it becomes extremely dry.

also need to know some key CVI: sample.They are typical only for CVI and help to find the disease.One of the most common is a sample Troyanova.It helps to determine the presence of the patient possible "faults" of blood through the veins "reserve."

also another trial will help determine whether the patient's femoral vein valve insufficiency.If such failure is present, then the coughing patient in a special oval fossa on the femur can be felt a push portion of the blood.

Also during the march tests can determine patency of saphenous veins.He applied a tourniquet, and the patient is asked to go a short distance.If desired vein then fall off - so they are passable.

When overlaying spiral tourniquet on the leg can also be employed to determine the presence of the subsidiary veins.If the harness between the turns on any site you can see the content of certain veins - so in that place there is a vein-mates.

Degrees CVI

There are several classifications of CVI according to the degree of its manifestations pathological signs.The first classification of stages of CVI created in severity.It includes a scale graduation degrees from 0 to 3.

0 degree will be delivered when the patient is not revealed any, even the slightest sign of CVI.

about 1 degree it will be possible when it is determined "rolling" (ability to disappear under certain conditions), swelling and discomfort in the leg muscles (usually the weighted feeling, "filled with lead 'leg muscles).

3rd degree CVI will be when the site appears on the dermal ulcers (it can be both fresh and healed).The ulcer will speak about the violation of the tissue structure due to lack of supply.

Also, there is another classification of CVI.As it includes more criteria than the previous one.Moreover, the criteria here are mostly visual signs.Here are 6 degrees.If the lightest skin will be neither extended nor increased the affected veins.And in the most severe - 6 degrees on the skin will be all the "palette" of CVI: and expanded sections of veins and altered because of this (darker) pigmentation, puffiness and of course the obligatory presence of a fresh ulcer.

CVI treatment

In treating CVI has three main mechanisms and the three main ways.Ways to eliminate CVI stand on the basic principles of: correcting failure of venous valves, eliminating the external manifestations of chronic venous insufficiency (usually extended areas veins) and holding-depth measures to eliminate launchers factors CVI.

mechanism for the implementation of these fundamental principles is also three.It is the use of various pharmacological methods.Also, of course, impossible at CVI forget about the benefits of surgical treatment of her.And there is one more, typical for CVI mechanism: a special sclerosing treatment.This treatment is more akin to a small microsurgical operations.In the section of the vein to be removed, a syringe is injected substance - sklerozant.It glues the damaged section of wall between themselves and unnecessary Vienna sclerosing.

Drug methods for the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency include a variety of different means.The key here will matter preventing inflammation, and local agents capable thin the blood, as well as drugs that prevent cell sedimentation of the blood and birth blood clots.In addition, advanced forms of CVI need immediate addition of antibiotics to treatment.

Besides drugs, one of the best ways to combat the CVI is a plastic compression.She was appointed as a separate method, and in combination with other mechanisms.This method is the application of special medical compression hosiery.According to its properties, it is extremely flexible and provides a permanent station on the pathological little pressure.This pressure is curative for patients with chronic venous insufficiency.It reduces venous stretched areas and helps the body to compensate for the failure of the venous valves.It also reduces the number of activated "spare" vein, and thus reduces the load increased volume of blood in the lower extremities.Also, this "volume load" decreases because the pressure on the tissue causes the absorption of tissue fluid from the venous network.Typically, the use of the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency by the pressure of medical hosiery prescribed for at least 6 months.When lung degrees CVI appointed wearing this jersey during exercises, training and other opportunities to be active.

Surgical benefits are fairly radical method of treatment of chronic venous insufficiency.During surgery removed veins "stock", as they are already deformed, and if they are not removed, they will cause and increased pressure in the lower extremities.

also on the operating table to remove sections of veins permanently insufficient valves.In addition, it is possible to correct inadequate venous valves.Typically, this correction made by introducing larger vessels, special spiral - correctors of Dacron.They are framed veins, and how to "raise" the insolvent valve.For the surgical treatment of CVI important as early as possible to lift the patient out of bed in the period after surgery.This helps the body to adapt and become better prevention of thrombotic complications, which are a threat to patients with severe CVI.

unmissable diet and the appointment of a special way of life.It is also important for the recovery of patients with chronic venous insufficiency.The diet involves tougher sanctions on the use of salt.It also requires the normalization of body weight and compliance with the use of a limited number of clear liquid.

in the treatment of CVI assigned to a particular way of life include: the abolition of wearing shoes with high heels or high platform.Patients should change your job, especially if it is characterized by heavy loads on their feet and stay in a room with a high fever.When sitting in patients with CVI is best to attach the legs elevated position, at least a little to relieve high blood pressure.

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