Catatonic syndromes

catatonic syndromes

Catatonic syndromes catatonic syndromes - psychopathological disorders, with a prevalence of movement disorders in the form of stupor, excitement, or alternation occurring in adults (50 years), and children.In most cases, these syndromes are observed in schizophrenia, but may also occur with organic or symptomatic psychosis

Catatonic stupor

expressed in total immobility, and a person can freeze in a very unusual position: with a raised over the air at a certain anglehead, standing on one leg with arms outstretched uncomfortable and so forth. However, in most cases, patients are still in the so-called "fetal position" (with eyes closed, in what - either side pressed to the body with bent legs and arms).This is usually followed by complete immobility, or absolute silence (mutism), or passive / active negativism.In passive negativism patient absolutely does not respond to any referral to it, the proposal requests.With active negativism opposite the patient actively resists all the requests

, for example, a request to show the tongue - squeezes his mouth tightened, and the offer to open their eyes - closes the eyelids even tighter.

cataleptic stupor (stupor with waxy flexibility) is characterized by a complete sinking of the patient to quite a long time to give it, or accepted by him pose, even extremely uncomfortable.During the course of his stupor a person does not respond to loud speech, but in complete silence can be released as spontaneously, thus becoming available to contact

catatonic excitement

stereotypically characterized by repetitive, meaningless chaotic movements.The excitement is accompanied by characteristic cries of certain words or phrases (verbigeration), or complete silence (silent excitation).A characteristic feature of excitation is that it takes place in the limited space within the (patients can endlessly shifting from foot to foot while standing on the same spot, jump up on the bed, while the stereotypically waving his arms).Sometimes patients may experience up movements (echopraxia), or words of others (echolalia), not identifying with the spontaneous speech.

With catatonic excitement often combined hebephrenic syndrome, which is characterized not be infected let the fun, darashlivostyu or mannerism.Such patients meow, grunt, cluck, show a language construct faces, grimace;sometimes meaningless rhyming words or mumbling - or unintelligible;copy the gestures and movements of others, for the welcome stretch the leg instead of the hands, shuffling walk, or lobbing legs


Compulsory held in a psychiatric hospital and is aimed at the underlying disease.The main drugs in the catatonic syndrome are benzodiazepines.In cases where patients are not sufficient to respond or do not respond at all to these drugs - appointed by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT).Sometimes the treatment of this syndrome used carbamazepine or lorazepam.

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