Vascular disease

Pulmonary infarction

Myocardial easy

pulmonary infarction photo Myocardial easy - this particular disease that develops as a result of exposure to certain reasons - thrombotic occlusions in the pulmonary blood flow.Pulmonary infarction accompanied by a rapid (within a day) the development process and eliminating the affected area from the general scheme of operation.

Inherently pulmonary infarction is similar in its manifestations with myocardial infarction.Both are dominated by a similar mechanism: a sharp deficiency in tissue oxygenation and nutrition, with its subsequent distrofizatsiey.

Myocardial lung disease is not fatal.The criterion of its current level is affected vessel, the amount of destruction, the destruction of bacterial adherence and the development of higher levels of intravascular pressure.

Myocardial causes lung

main reason for the development of pulmonary infarction - blood clots is increased in the blood vessels of the body.The most common causes that can lead to pulmonary infarction are numerous thrombophlebi

tis, thrombosis vasculature veins of the lower extremities.Moreover, as can be the primary cause of traumatic lesions of tubular bones, which may cause certain fat embolism in the pulmonary vascular network.Surgical operations, particularly at the extremity veins, including can easily lead to the subsequent development of lung ischemia and infarction.

important to understand that pulmonary infarction develops when blood vessels are clogged pulmonary small or medium-sized, which nourish the lung tissue.When plugging a large pulmonary vascular bed (eg the bed of the pulmonary artery) immediately develop another complication - thromboembolic pulmonary artery lesion bed, which in most cases their ends lethally.

Whatever the root cause of the disease, they trigger a cascade of the same pathogenic reactions.The first such reaction - a sudden occlusion (blockage) pulmonary vascular embolic mass.As a result, power is stopped portion lung structure that corresponds to a given receptacle.As a result, from a lack of oxygen and nutrient substrates fabric undergoes a series of changes in dystrophic and necrotic.

In parallel, due to lack of blood supply, disturbed gas exchange in the lung area, and therefore greatly reduced total blood oxygenation and develop subsequent violations have total gas exchange.

Furthermore, because the main carrier vessels closed, activate additional pathways - special shunt in which blood is also reset.But these shunts open between arteries and veins that disrupts the flow of blood through the circles of blood circulation, and thus leads to chaos processes oxygen saturation and getting rid of carbon dioxide.As a result, it is even more common worsens oxygenation of the body.

Another mechanism in pulmonary infarction is that in the basin of the sealed vessel increases the pulmonary pressure level that gradually leads to the formation of pulmonary hypertension.Besides the ever-growing hypertension vessel may rupture.This results in the area of ​​blood soaking and complete his necrosis, without restoring (hemorrhagic pulmonary infarction).

Myocardial symptoms of lung

is important to understand that the value of the clinical symptoms of pulmonary infarction will depend on the size of the affected area of ​​the lung tissue.Thus, when small areas of pulmonary infarction, the clinical symptoms can not be observed at all, and the diagnosis of pulmonary infarction is directly exposed already accidentally in the treatment of bacterial its complications.

main syndromes myocardial bright light would, of course, signs of acute occlusion of pulmonary vessels.The first disturbing syndrome may be sharp, sharp pain in the chest, which appeared suddenly and generally healthy background.This pain is indicative of occlusion of pulmonary vessels and lung tissue sharp insufficiency of nutrients, or ischemia.This syndrome is similar to that of myocardial infarction, which is also in the foreground sharp and sudden hypoxia, ischemia and tissue.

After the pain of myocardial lung appears dyspnea.She also appears sharply and suddenly.Its mechanism of development is based on the switching off of the affected area of ​​the light of the general scheme of respiration, which would entail a partial failure of the respiratory function.Shortness of breath is itself a compensatory mechanism: as the body tries to more frequent respiratory movements "compensate" the lack of function of the lung tissue.

shortness of breath may be added to the sputum with bloody streaks.This condition usually develops when a separate subspecies pulmonary infarction, known as hemorrhagic pulmonary infarction, which comes to the fore gap clogged vessel and impregnating a thrombus area of ​​tissue with blood.The same state, as well as a common shock, due to a sharp drop in pallor and blood pressure levels in a patient.

important indicator of the possible presence of pulmonary infarction in full swing, will collect anamnesis of illness where the patient will point to the long tromboflebicheskie limb venous disease, rheumatic fever, or lesions of the right heart sections.This will allow the suspect are possible thrombotic disease.

Pulmonary infarction treatment

Since the basis of the development of pulmonary infarction is thrombotic occlusion of the pulmonary arteries, the first primary therapy will be aimed particularly at its early removal.For this set of anticoagulant therapy is appointed.This complex is used heparin or Fraksiparin.The introduction of these products is carried out under the strict supervision of a number of indicators of coagulation (especially active partial thromboplastin time).Cycle heparin therapy is usually up to 7 days, where Heparin was administered subcutaneously, previously diluted in sodium chloride.After this dose of heparin is reduced, and it is replaced with the preparation of indirect anticoagulants - fenilina.

also carried of thrombolysis therapy - a blood clot resorption.For this purpose, the drug streptokinase or urokinase.These drugs also need to be administered by controlling coagulation parameters.Furthermore thrombolytic therapy differs initial maximal doses of drug administration, which are then gradually reduced.

The two above points are also adding antiaggregation therapy.It is prescribed to prevent formation of future blood clots.The most commonly used drugs of this therapy - Aspirin.

also perform relief of pain in myocardial easy - spend administering non-narcotic analgesics (such as a 50% solution of dipyrone).

Along the way, spend prevention of complications of pulmonary infarction.For this purpose, the use of different treatment regimens with antibiotics - for example, the introduction of cephalosporins third generation (ceftriaxone).

also possible to perform and surgical benefits.Most often used in myocardial lung thrombectomy or install a special filter (cava filter) into the inferior vena cava, which will be able not to miss thrombus below current levels.

Myocardial effects of lung

Myocardial lung may be accompanied by a large number of consequences.Of these, the most basic is the infarct lesion bacterial pneumonia lung abscess and necrotic changes.

pneumonia as a consequence of pulmonary infarction often develops and leads in their frequency of occurrence among other complications.The main cause of pneumonia lies in the peculiarities of the pathogenesis of pulmonary infarction.As has been described above is easy myocardial necrotic lesions of pulmonary structure, so preventing access of blood to them.Since these structures are fully disengaged from both the blood flow and the act of breathing, then they developed all conditions for entering and development of bacterial agents.In addition, the affected areas of lung infarction little aerated, which also serves as an additional factor to the development of a heart attack, pneumonia.

pneumonic lung affected areas can then fester, destroying the structure of the lung and form a so-called "postinfarction" abscess - a cavity in the lung tissue filled with pus and necrotic masses.The main danger of such abscesses is a threat their breakthrough, bacterial lesions of healthy lung areas, as well as spontaneous pneumothorax - a state where there is a rupture of pulmonary structures, reducing the differential pressure in the lungs and, as a consequence of acute disorders of respiratory function.

is important to understand that the effects of myocardial lung is entirely dependent on the volume and location of the lesion: if they are involved in the pathological process of blood vessels of small caliber, that, in turn, ischemic portion of lung is relatively small and therefore relatively small or completely absent willsubsequent complications.

forecast pulmonary infarction depends on the timely detection and treatment.The earlier it is diagnosed the sooner therapy is started lysing (resorption), a blood clot, the greater the chance of restoring normal blood flow, supply the ischemic region of the lung and a speedy recovery.

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