Autism - a mental disorder that occurs as a result of developmental disorders of the brain, characterized by a deficiency of social contact and communication, restricted interests and the same type, repetitive actions.The disease manifests itself in the age of three.Similar state, but more soft signs and symptoms considered to Asperger syndrome
with the cause of the disease is closely linked genes that influence the occurrence of synaptic connections in the cerebral cortex, but also scholars doubt that the onlyautism genes are the culprit.And play the role of rare mutations during pregnancy.Presumably they believe that the environment and attitude towards child, living conditions are also involved in the occurrence of autism in children.The other reason, such as vaccination of the child, put forward as a hypothesis without scientific evidence.The prevalence of this disorder about 6 persons per thousand.Boys get sick more often girls are four times.In autism are marked
Autism symptoms in children
It is primarily speech delay and lack of desire to go on contact - lack of communication, limited interests, stereotypes, there is a problem in the development of non-verbal communication (failure to look intoeyes and rejection of bodily embrace), the inability to make friends with their peers, to share the joy and enthusiasm with his comrades, lack of empathy for his friends;no perception of such feelings, the pain and sadness of people from their environment;tireless desire to organize things and put things in order
In three cases out of four it is mental retardation, inability to speak, as if talking to a child is experiencing difficulties to make the first conversation and keep it.How to recognize autism?It is not difficult, the patients repeated the same type of phrases heard previously.The conversation did not perceive the humor and understand everything literally, without covert communication.Observed irregularities in sensory perception (when sick - are silent, and from the usual touch of curl)
Infantile Autism manifests itself as focusing on the parts of the toy, and very unwilling to play a whole.And often do not wish to play.The requirement of a close relative of a certain order in the (walking on the same road, eating foods in a certain order).Young children do not like affection from parents, sound games, can not begin to tell for a long time, there is a delay in speech development.Child - autistic ignoring speech, addressed to him, and only responds to the distant sounds.
autism disease in adolescence is not an easy time to go.Children usually tolerate this difficult period, and twice as autistic.Teens feel fear, depression, fits of epilepsy
Autism in adults enthusiasm manifests itself in certain topics (video games, card games, memorizing the license plate on the car), lack of a sense of humor.Stereotypical thinking - patterns learned in advance, characterized by the same movements - swinging.Symptoms of the disease is such that 33% of the patients can achieve success in professional work, to live independently, but still have difficulties in communicating with people.Adult Intelligence reaches (in the treatment and training) is not above average.Not more than 10% of adults suffering from autism tend to improve their skills (memorizing poems, draw, play an instrument)
classification of autism, developed in Russia in 1987
are two types of autism : classic autism, Kanner (on behalf of the doctor Leo Kanner, who for the first time in 1943 described this type of pathology) and the second type of autism, in which there are autistic state of different origin
Varieties disease :
1) syndrome of early classical infantile autism Kanner
2) autisticpsychopathy Asperger
3) endogenous and paroxysmal autism because schizophrenia
4) residual-organic state autism
5) autism because of chromosomal aberrations
6) autism because Rett syndrome
7) autism of unknown origin
Diagnosis of autism
Early diagnosis and treatment of autism allow the child as quickly as possible to realize the existing potential from birth.To determine the extent and specificity of a child's development lag, doctors use a variety of instructions, questionnaires, tests measure the level of intelligence and development.Successfully applied and clinical observations in different situations.Evaluate the doctor and the physical condition of the sick, to find out how physically developed baby.At the discretion of the physician taking laboratory tests.Chromosomal analysis is done in the presence of the family of the mentally retarded.Electroencephalograph prescribed by a doctor at the characteristic seizures and return to his behavior.Magnetic resonance imaging performed when detected a difference in brain structure.
Infantile Autism especially : 1 year baby does not mumbles, does not make gestures and shows the request on items;1.5 years without saying a word;2 years not play two-word phrases, and if you lose skills acquired earlier
autism is that there is no way to fully recover from this condition and how to treat properly autism and to assist parents, no one knows.And about the fact that as to whether this particular disease state, are prevalent in the scientific community debate.But still you need to help your child the ability to communicate and interact in society.Not all children in the future is possible to live fully independent lives, having reached the age of majority, but there are exceptions.So, working with autism gives positive results.And as the reviews suggest - Autism in children difficult problem, but solvable.Reviews grateful parents from attending special summer camps and educational centers inspire teachers and doctors to continue working with sick children autism.Education of children with autism is aimed at intensive training - workshops, both individual and group.Successful music therapy, art therapy, physiotherapy, neyrokineziterapiya.These classes give children the opportunity to immerse themselves in the world of bright colors, sensations and forms harmonize muscle tone, motor to achieve balance.With early treatment, many children are establishing their contacts with the outside world
Autism Treatment Drug
Defeat Autism Drug Administration can only be limited.Therapy helps in difficult situations, but the standard drugs for the treatment of autism does not exist.Medicines consist of serotonin reuptake inhibitors (sitalopram, fluoxetine, sertralayn).These formulations are used successfully in treating depression and popularity switched to treatment of autism.Then go of anxiety, mania, and improves the overall behavior and learning ability of children with autism, normalized language skills and socialization in the society
treatment of autism and aggression
also used for treatment of psychotropic drugs (haloperidol, risperidone, sonapaks).These drugs help with behavioral problems (aggression, anger, uncontrolled actions), but have the side effect (weight gain, agitation, insomnia).Therefore, before taking - consult with your doctor.When prescribing psychotropic medication the doctor takes into account the parents' family problems arising from the presence of the patient's family.Autism and aggression is a challenge for parents.And treat, it is necessary to react to the latent aggression and parental guilt, aimed at the child;premature expectations due to the beginning of therapy and desire rapid cure autism.More important is a point that due to difficulties in communication and speech disorders, sick, unable to report on adverse changes in their body and experience discomfort can go into strengthening its pathological behavior.In connection with such a situation you need to monitor the dynamics.Sometimes prescribed clonidine hydrochloride, for lowering blood pressure and treating aggression in people with symptoms of autism.This also add lithium and anticonvulsants (carbamazepine), and valproic acid.These tools are good for children with infrequent attacks.
Efficiency and assistance from all drugs is individual and it is important to remember the parents!
in our country are the leading types of assistance in the form of hospitals, and requires institutions which really will combine educational, medical, speech therapy and remedial assistance
remedial work carried out by a team, and this is a child psychiatrist,neurologist, speech therapist, psychologist, teacher - teacher, nurse - teacher, music teacher.
remedial work should be implemented in stages.Use customized training programs and conducting games for specialized nurseries and kindergartens.Use two modes: gentle, as well as activating.Adaptation of the kid to the day hospital is based on the use of tactile, motor contacts, pantomime, protopathic forms in terms of free choice, and the field behavior.Assessment of the child's level of development, existing knowledge and behavioral skills should be made by all specialists.A further developed an individual plan of remedial measures.Activities planned child taking into account his mental development.Used alone, and later group play therapy.It worked through initially important reactions revival and included visual-motor complex.The next step is the process of manipulation of objects.As a result, developing a tactile, kinesthetic, visual and tactile perception and muscle.Later, between certain parts of the body are produced due to the verbal designations, various kinds of movements and their verbal definitions.In a sick child formed the initial idea of the body, its parts.Now it is working with the child on education elementary skills of self-service and to participate in purposeful activity.From experience it is clear that the initial phase of treatment for autism knowledge of the child behind in the age of the order of 3.Mostly the game manipulation, there is no partnership, no relation to the value of the game toys, there is no reaction to the proposed new toys introduced new faces.
next stage - the transition from the manipulation of the toy to the game story.
important is the motivation and the motivation of the activities, the frequent repetition of the game and creating gaming stamps, with obligatory inclusion of visual - motor complex.Then gradually introduce more complex forms of the game, giving verbal instructions briefly
Pedagogy and autism
Pedagogical programs include teaching children the concepts of the account number, the definition of the categories of time, the orientation of the shape of objects, orientation in space.Children with autism very hard to go to the new movements, not imitate, do not produce a consistent chain of action.They have difficulties to reproduce at the request of the newly acquired knowledge.And at this stage it is important complication of activity - the proposed increase in the volume of knowledge and skills, but any job offered in graphic form and are explained on several occasions.Speech of the votes cast different job volume and appeal to kids at a different pitch.Only after mastering uniform programs that offer different specialists, monotonous work sick child begins to grow and becomes directed.And that now the children are transferred to the conscious mastery of operating skills and chances.In the process of comprehensive education at autism awareness created by the "I" and the ability to separate themselves from the others.At subsequent stages of all also solve the problem of complexity of the activities of the child, with a gradual transition from individual lessons to group
Logopedic work includes the definition of speech pathology, and the corresponding correction develops phonemic and speech hearing, attention, put sounds and automation held breathing and voiceexercise.An important goal is the expansion of vocabulary and develop skills to compile short sentences at the pictures of their series, as well as other tasks.