mental retardation photo Oligophrenia - acquired in early childhood or congenital dementia, manifested in a significant underdevelopment of the psyche, affecting primarily human intelligence.Mental retardation is not a progressive process, and develops as a result of this illness.To assess the degree of mental deficiency conducted standard psychological tests for evaluation of the results is determined by IQ of the subject.Mental retardation often accompanied by malformations of physical development.In common parlance, this disease in children is often referred to as mental retardation, and direct the child - mentally retarded

Causes of mental retardation

are three groups of factors that can trigger the development of this disease, it is:

- intrauterine infection during the course ofpregnancy (toxoplasmosis, congenital syphilis , rubella, hormonal disorders), immunokonflikt the blood of mother and child, drug addiction, alcoholism and other addictions mother (provoke disturbances supply the fe

tus with nutrients), postnatal and birth defects of the skull of the child

- Specifichereditary metabolic disorders, a variety of genetic syndromes and chromosomal abnormalities ( Down syndrome , syndrome of Turner, Klinefelter's syndrome , syndrome Rubinstayma-Teybi, various types of mucopolysaccharidosis, etc..)

- The most severe forms of mental retardationdevelop as a result of the cumulative effects on the body both endogenous and exogenous factors (congenital hydrocephalus , childhood infectious diseases, head injury kid in early childhood, asphyxia newborn and fetus, etc..)

degrees of mental retardation

lightest degreeDementia is debility .Children with this deviation often able to complete primary school and are capable of independent life.In morons particularly prevalent - descriptive type of thinking, the ability to abstract is almost completely absent.Some morons despite the low productivity of thought and delay the overall mental development are partly gifted, that may manifest itself in an excellent visual and mechanical memory, the ability to mentally perform complex arithmetic and so forth. Morons are divided into inhibited (torpid), vengeful, angry - stubborn,sluggish - apathetic and excitable (eretichnyh)

High degree of severity of mental retardation is imbecility .Imbeciles able to pronounce short phrases and understand speech of others.Some patients can learn simple self-service skills, to produce basic math (counting) operation and simple to learn job skills.Imbeciles adequately react to blame or praise, very attached to his family, their emotions are more differentiated.Thinking of this group of patients with very primitive, they are suggestible, inert, completely devoid of initiative, changing the environment are easily lost, in need of constant care

most profound degree of mental retardation is idiocy , which is characterized by the almost complete lack of thought and speech.For idiocy characteristic unexamined activities.The emotional life of such people is limited to primitive reactions of pleasure and displeasure.Idiots able to say only a few words or sounds, are not able to understand the speech of their surroundings, can not distinguish between relatives from strangers.Such people are unable to feed himself, can not be an elementary self serve, need constant care

Symptoms of mental retardation

In all patients, mental retardation there are common signs of mental underdevelopment:

- Dementia is manifested not only in the underdevelopment of the cognitive process, it coverspersonality as a whole: the intellect suffers, thinking, will, emotions, motor skills, language, attention, memory and perception

- leading role in the structure of mental defect belongs to the inability to generalize and lack of abstract thinking (thinking situational, imaginative, concrete).Vocabulary different poverty, basic phrases and built wrong.Memory and attention are weakened, can sometimes be a well-developed mechanical memory (selective remembering numbers, phone numbers and so on.).In patients with marked reduction initiatives and intentions.Delay also occurs and physical development

Diagnosing mental retardation in the first year of life is based on a set of symptoms of mental and physical underdevelopment.The diagnosis of mental retardation is set for children if they are at a very early age are unable to fix on a single point view, it does not hold up to a year's head, do not sit, do not turn your head to the sound, not gulyat and do not smile when they are accessed.Toddlers second year of life manifests itself mental retardation and motor speech underdevelopment, lack of desire to know the environment.The child does not try to repeat the actions of adults and does not understand him facing it.In preschoolers mild mental retardation is manifested in the inability to self-service, poor learning, the predominance of primitive emotions and poorly developed speech

Treatment of mental retardation

For early detection of children of various forms of mental retardation, there is a single worldwide health visitor monitoring system of mental and physicaldevelopment of children from birth to school.Unfortunately conduct treatment of this disease is only possible in the case of metabolic etiology of mental retardation in which the child is shown prescription drugs for the correction of metabolic, and quality of care depends on the susceptibility to this treatment of the child.

For other forms of mental retardation may conduct only adjuvant therapy nootropics, amino acids, vitamin complexes, drugs to reduce intracranial pressure and cerebral blood circulation stimulation.

oligophrenic to compensate for the defect are also important labor training, as well as medical - educational activities.Along with the health authorities, social adaptation and rehabilitation oligophrenics play an important role supporting schools - boarding schools, workshops and vocational schools for the mentally retarded

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service physician recruitment is relevant only for the citizens of the Russian Federation

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