Obsessive-compulsive disorder, and abbreviated (OCR) refers to a complex of symptoms, which are combined in a group and get the united Latin terminology and obsessio compulsio.
obsession itself is translated from Latin means the siege, taxation, the blockade, and compulsions in Latin means urge.
for compulsive drives, types of compulsive phenomena (obsessions) is characterized by intolerable and very irresistible attraction that occur in the head in defiance of reason, will and feelings.Very often they are taken ill as unacceptable and contradictory act in relation to its moral and ethical principles and never compared with impulsive inclinations compulsions are not implemented.All these attractions by the patient realize how wrong and it is very hard going through.The very same occurrence of these drives by nature incomprehensible often contributes to the emergence of the patient a sense of fear.
himself compulsions term often used to refer to obsessions in m
Turning to domestic psychiatry, we find that under the compulsions are understood psychopathological phenomenon, characterized by the occurrence of phenomena in the mind of the patient specific content, accompanied by a painful sense of compulsion.For obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the occurrence of involuntary, contrary to the will itself, obsessive desires at a distinct awareness.But these obsessions themselves alien, superfluous in the psyche of the patient, but the sick get rid of them can not.Traced the patient close relationship with emotional and depressive reactions and a sense of unbearable anxiety.If you have the above symptoms is established that they do not affect the intellectual activity itself and, in general, are alien to his thinking, and do not lower its level, but degrade the performance and productivity of the very mental activity.Over the entire period of the disease to the ideas of compulsion maintained a critical attitude.Obsessions previously divided into intellectual and affective obsessions (phobia), and the motor (compulsions).In most cases, the structure of the disease obsessions combined some of their species.Isolation of the obsessions of abstract or indifferent in its content (affectively indifferent), for example, aritmomaniya, often unjustified.When analyzing the psychogenesis of neuroses really see the basis for depression
Obsessive-compulsive disorder - Causes
reasons for obsessive-compulsive disorder are the genetic factors psychasthenic personality and intrafamily problems.
elementary parallel obsessions with psychogenic causes of cryptogenic exist under which the cause of the experience itself is hidden.Obsessions are observed mainly in people with psychasthenic character and are particularly important concerns the obsessive nature, as well as the Gregorianthere are between neurosis states at the time of sluggish schizophrenia, epilepsy, endogenous depression after traumatic brain injury and physical diseases, hypochondriac, phobic or nozofobicheskom syndrome.Some researchers believe that the clinical picture of the genesis of obsessive-compulsive disorder plays an important role trauma, as well as conditioned reflex stimuli, which have become pathogenic because of their resemblance to other stimuli, previously called the feeling of fear.Not a few are important situations that have become psychogenic because confrontation with opposing trends.But it should be noted that these same experts note that there are compulsive in the presence of various features of the character, but still more frequently in psychasthenic personalities.
Today, these obsessions are described and included in the International Classification of Diseases under the names "obsessive-compulsive disorder."
OCD is very common for a large percentage of diseases and in urgent need of raising the issue of mental health.Currently expanded understanding of the etiology of the disease.It is very important that the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder is directed toward the serotonergic neurotransmission.This discovery has made it possible to recover millions of prospects in all the world, sick obsessive-compulsive disorder.How to fill the body of serotonin?This helps tryptophan - an amino acid that is in a single source - food.And in the body Tryptophan is converted into serotonin.When this transformation occurs mental relaxation and a feeling of emotional well-being.Further, serotonin acts as a precursor of melatonin, which regulates the biological clock.
This discovery, an intense inhibition of serotonin reuptake (SSRIs) are the keys to the most effective treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder, and was the first stage of the revolution in clinical trials, where it was noticed by the effectiveness of such selective inhibitors
obsessive-compulsive disorder- History
compulsive disorder clinic has attracted the attention of researchers from the XVII century.
first started talking about it in 1617, and in 1621 E. Barton described the obsessive fear of death.The research described in the compulsion F. Pinel (1829) and I. Balinskii coined the term "obsessive representation", which entered the Russian psychiatric literature.Since 1871 Westphal introduced the term "agoraphobia", which indicates the presence of fear in public places.
In 1875, M. Legrand de Sol, by analyzing the characteristics of the dynamics of the flow of obsessive-compulsive disorder in the forms of insanity doubt with ravings touch found that gradually complicating the clinical picture in which the obsessive doubt replaced by fear of touching the objects in the environment, andalso join the motor rituals that govern the life of the diseased
Obsessive-compulsive disorder in children
But only in the XIX-XX centuries.the researchers managed to characterize more clearly the clinical picture and give an explanation on the syndromes of obsessive compulsive disorders.Needless to obsessive-compulsive disorder in children often falls on adolescence or young adulthood.Himself the most clinically isolated manifestations of OCD stands in the range of 10 - 25 years
Obsessive-compulsive disorder - symptoms
main features of obsessive-compulsive disorder are the recurring and highly intrusive thoughts (obsessive), and compulsive actions (rituals).
Simply put the nucleus in OCD obsessive-compulsive acts, it is a collection of the clinical picture of thoughts, feelings, fears, memories and all of this occurs in addition to the will of the patient, but also in the knowledge of all pain and very critical attitude.When understanding unnatural and illogical whole obsessive-compulsive disorder, as well as ideas, patients very powerless in trying to overcome their own.All obsessive impulses and ideas are accepted as alien to the personality and as if taking place inside.Patients with obsessive actions represent the performance of rituals, which act as a relief of anxiety, (it can be hand washing, wearing gauze bandages,null, frequent change of linen in order to prevent infection).All attempts to ward off unwanted thoughts and impulses lead to a severe inner struggle, which is accompanied by intense anxiety.These obsessions are included in a group of neurotic disorders.
population prevalence of OCD is very high.Those suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder is 1% of the patients who lechyatsya in psychiatric hospitals.It is believed that men and women get the same degree.
for obsessive-compulsive disorder is characterized by the occurrence of obsessive thoughts painful nature of independent reasons, but issued to patients as their own personal beliefs, ideas, images.These thoughts forcefully in a stereotyped form penetrate the consciousness of the patient, but at the same time he tries to resist them.
Here is the union of the internal sense of compulsive beliefs, as well as efforts to confront it indicates the presence of the obsessional symptoms.Thoughts obsessive nature can also take the form of individual words, verses, phrases.For the most suffering they may be indecent, shocking and blasphemous.
obsessional images of themselves - it is a very lively scene presented, often having the character of the violence, as well as aversive (sexual perversions).
Obsessional pulses include incitement to commit acts usually disruptive or dangerous, as well as capable of shame.For example, the cry in the community, obscene words and jump in front of a moving car dramatically.
Obsessional Rituals include repetitive work, for example, by repetition of certain words, repetition is often meaningless actions, such as washing their hands up to twenty times, but some can develop obsessive thoughts about the upcoming challenge.Some rituals patients include constant unfolding in ordering clothes based on a complex system.One of the patients experienced an irresistible urge to perform and wild action a number of times, and if this does not occur, then ill have to repeat all over again.Patients themselves recognize the illogicality of their rituals and deliberately try to hide this fact.Sufferers experience and consider their symptoms incipient madness.All of these obsessional thoughts, as well as rituals contribute to the emergence of problems in everyday life.
Obsessive thoughts or simply ruminations, akin to an internal debate in which continually reviewed all the arguments for and against, including a very simple everyday actions.Some obsessive doubt refer to actions that allegedly might have been incorrectly implemented and not finished, for example (off the tap gas cooker and lock the door, while others refer to actions that could possibly cause damage to other persons (presumably passing bycyclist car knock him). It is often a doubt due to religious prescriptions and rituals, namely remorse.
With regard to compulsive action, so they are characterized by repetitive stereotypical behavior, which have acquired the character of protective rituals.
Along with this obsessivecompulsive disorder secrete a number of clear symptom of which contrast obsessions, obsessive doubts and phobias (obsessive fears).
obsessional thoughts themselves and compulsive rituals can in some cases increase, namely, the nature of obsessionalthoughts of harming others is often amplified in the kitchen or somewhere in other places where there are sharps.Patients themselves often try to avoid such situations, there may be a similarity with the anxiety-phobic.By itself, the alarm performs a significant component in obsessive-compulsive disorder.Some rituals weakening anxiety, and other rituals after it rises.
Obsessions are especially enhanced in the framework of depression.In some patients with symptoms reminiscent psychologically comprehensible reaction to the obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and in other cases, recurrent episodes of depressive disorders arising from independent reasons.
Obsessions (obsessions) divided by the sense or figurative, which are characterized by the development of painful passion and obsessive-compulsive disorder affectively neutral contents.
By Obsessions sensual plan gets obsessive sense of antipathy actions doubt intrusive memories, ideas, impulses, fears of habitual behavior.
Under obsessive doubt gets the uncertainty which has arisen in spite of sound logic and reason.The patient begins to doubt the correctness of the decisions made, as well as committed and committed action.The content of the question is different: concerns about the locked door, closed valves, closed the windows, turning off electricity off the gas;official doubts about the correct written document addresses on business papers, whether the figures indicated.And despite repeated checking of the act, obsessive doubts do not disappear but only cause psychological discomfort.
To get persistent intrusive memories and insurmountable sad memories of unpleasant and shameful events that are accompanied by feelings of remorse and shame.These memories prevail in the minds of the patient, and this is all that the patient is trying to distract them in any way.
Obsessive desire pushing hard to implement or very dangerous action.At the same time the patient has a feeling of fear, terror and confusion about the inability to get rid of him.Affected occurs wild desire to throw himself under the train and pushed under a train lover or cruel way to kill his wife and child.Sick with a very tormented and worried about the implementation of these actions.
Obsessive presentation also appear in different versions.In some cases it is possible a bright vision of the results themselves compulsive drives.At this point, patients are strongly committed vision of cruel act.For other cases, the representation of obsessive appear as something implausible, even as an absurd situation, but ill take for real.For example, the belief and the conviction of the sick, that relative was buried interred still alive.At the peak of obsessive ideas awareness of their absurdity and improbability itself disappears prevalent acute confidence in their reality.
obsessive sense of antipathy, here also includes obsessive blasphemous thoughts, and aversion to loved ones unworthy thoughts to the respected people in the direction of the saints and priests.
to compulsive actions are typical actions that are committed against the wishes of cases and in spite of all the accompanying them containment efforts.Some of compulsive actions burdened with the patient, and so it continues until they are realized.
Others obsessions pass by the patient.The most painful compulsive actions, when they are paying attention.
obsessive fears or phobias include fear of large streets, fear of heights, confined or open spaces, fear of large crowds, fear of sudden death and the fear of contracting an incurable disease.And some patients have a phobia with the fear of all (panfobii).And finally, you may experience obsessive fear (phobophobia).
Nozofobii or hypochondriacal phobias are related to obsessive fear of any serious illness.Very often seen insulto-, cardio, SPIDofobii-, sifilo-, a phobia of cancer.At the peak of anxiety ill often lose a critical attitude towards their health and often resort to the doctor for examination and treatment of non-existent diseases.
isolated or specific phobias include obsessive fears caused by the specific situation (fear of heights, storms, nausea, pets, treatment at the dentist, etc.).For patients who experience fear, avoidance characteristic of these situations.
Obsessive fears are often supported by the development of rituals - activities that are involved in the magic spells.The rituals are carried out due to the protection of an imaginary misfortune.Rituals may include snapping fingers, the repetition of certain phrases, singing some melodies and so on.