Pick's disease - a progressive disease of the central nervous system that is characterized by atrophy of the frontal and temporal lobes of the cerebral cortex and is manifested by progressive dementia.The average age of onset of 50-60 years, although possible, and later, and an earlier demonstration.Women suffer more often than men.As a result of the withering away of neutrons in this disease becomes thinner cerebral cortex, the cerebral sulci deepen, brain ventricles increase significantly, and the border between the white and gray matter is cleared
Pick disease - the cause of
Currently unequivocal cause of Pick's disease are notinstalled.At the moment, the scientists isolated a number of factors that increase the risk of its development:
- The main risk factor is a family history.If have blood relatives in the elderly present a different kind of dementia, you need to very cautious and attentive to their condition
- intoxication.In the case of long-term effects on the
- head injury.Because the disease is shown dying off of neurons that head injury is also considered a risk factor
- Transferred mental illness.A person who has had a depressive illness, the risk of dementia increases significantly
Pick disease - symptoms
At the initial stage of disease, Pick a sufficiently long period of time to the fore deep personal changes and signs of change the most difficult kinds of intellectual activities.Disease develops gradually and unobtrusively.One of the early symptoms is the disappearance of a critical attitude to the environment and its state, which is one of the main symptoms of dementia developing total.Parallel to this, a reduction in the mobility and productivity of thought, reduced the level of judgment, progressively reduced emotionality.Thus at this stage the patient is well preserved memory and spatial orientation.In some cases, together with the growing dementia appears shallow depression, tearfulness and non-manifested delusions damage.Also, sometimes patients may experience headache, weakness, dizziness.As the growth of this dementia symptoms disappear.
Depending on the localization of atrophic process, there is a modification of the clinical manifestations of the disease.In the case of lesions of the basal bark patients fussy, mobile, can stick to others and make them tactless inappropriate comments, they observed an increase in careless-state (psevdoparalitichesky syndrome).In the case of frontal lobe lesions, in patients with predominant inaction, apathy and lethargy.If the prevalence of atrophic process in the fronto-temporal and frontal lobes, dominated by the occurrence of focal disorders, in particular speech stereotype.When deployed
picture Pick's disease, to have already developed symptoms of dementia joins focal cortical disorders.Decays expressive speech, vocabulary significantly depleted, and sometimes it can even be limited to a few short phrases or words;the semantic content of the speech is simplified violated its grammatical structure.Understanding another's speech significantly deteriorates.Develop specific to Pick's disease speech stereotypes that appear in the same type of answers to very different questions.Sometimes the answers are so detailed that are like short stories.After a certain period of time it significantly skudneet on a variety of issues the patient is usually responsible one, at least a few words.The characteristic symptoms of the collapse of the expressive speech include echolalia (often accompanied echopraxia) and palilalia.Sometimes rough decay expressive speech manifested violent singing or speaking, which are limited to the pronunciation of a phrase.These disorders are also referred to as speech stereotype.
's behavior and writing, in a patient having the so-called "stand-up momentum."For example, every time the patient saw a funeral procession from the window, out of the house, she comes with her to the cemetery and back out.There may be following the development of cortical disorders: apraxia, Alex, dyscalculia, agraphia and amnestic aphasia.U30% of patients develop neurological disorders such as extrapyramidal hyperkinesis and amiostaticheskogo horeopodobnyh syndrome.Also, there may be paroxysmal states in the form of loss of muscle tone, followed by the fall of non-epileptic seizures and are not accompanied by impaired consciousness.
patients with Pick's disease in severe stages of development in most cases there is excess body weight (obesity).In the terminal stage marked violent laughter and crying, grasping and oral automatisms, appears increasing cachexia, it disappears, and any signs of mental activity
Diagnostics Pick's disease
patients with suspected disease, Pick examine a psychiatrist.In the first place based on personal conversations and general inspection of the surface of the patient the doctor evaluates the current state of the neuro-psychic sphere.First of all, the preliminary examination should reveal the inadequacy of the actions and violation of social behavior.To assess the state of the brain is assigned to conduct the following methods:
- CT (computed tomography).This type of diagnostics provides a layered high-precision images of the brain.CT is used to determine the progression of the process and to identify the most affected part of the brain
- Electroencephalography.This method is based on the ability of special equipment to capture arising in the human brain minimum electrical pulses appearing during signal.Data received pulses appear on a sheet of paper into a plurality of curves.When Pick's disease crust thins respectively process it takes much less than that, respectively, and displays EEG
- MRI, or magnetic resonance imaging is the same diagnostic value as CT
When Pick's disease shows a requirement for differentialdiagnosis of diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, brain cancer, mental disorders with diffuse atherosclerosis
Pick disease - treatment
Causal treatment, eliminating Pick's disease does not yet exist.Unfortunately at this point is not developed and therapy, allowing to stop the progression of the disease even at any stage.
First of all, people with Pick's disease requires constant care and concern.In view of the deplorable state they are not only unable to live independently, but also can carry to others and himself some danger (not open burning natural gas, etc.).
Currently, the treatment of Pick's disease is in the following areas:
- Replacement therapy.The patient attribute take those substances which can not be produced due to atrophy of the brain (antidepressants, MAO inhibitors, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, etc.).
- Acceptance of anti-inflammatory drugs
- neuroprotective.Stimulates brain cells, enhancing metabolic processes in them, thus contributing to the delayed neuronal death, followed by atrophy of the cerebral cortex
- Farmakorrektsiya existing mental disorders.Uses drugs reduce aggression antidepressants
- constant psychological support.Patients participate in special training courses aimed at slowing the progression of the disease
forecast later in life when Pick's disease is poor.In five to ten years from the date of onset of the disease there is a complete mental and moral decay of the individual patient, comes cachexia and marasmus.A man completely lost to society.Life expectancy at Pick's disease is about six - eight years.Patients need to be obligatory to complete withdrawal, which is best done in a specialized psychiatric hospital
More articles on the topic:
1. Obsessive-compulsive disorder
2. catatonic syndromes