history of schizophrenia
history of the study of schizophrenia has a long background and is an incredibly great interest to physicians in all respects.This is the most common diseases among the patients admitted to psychiatric hospitals.The word schizophrenia represents a Greek - a splitting mind, which refers to the disorganization and lack of harmony, irrationality and inconsistency in terms of understanding of ordinary people.Schizophrenia causes severe mental changes, characterized by the decline, an incurable condition of dementia and total disability.
first description of signs and symptoms of sc
studying ancient Greek and Roman sources, it is possible to find that the scientists of the time were quite aware of the mental disorder of the person, but do not meet the descriptions that would satisfy current criteria for schizophrenia.
At the same time the signs and symptoms of schizophrenia meeting, were seen in the Arab medical and psychological texts that date back to the Middle Ages.
Despite the overall concept of madness that exists for thousands of years, but since 1893 schizophrenia was put into a separate mental disorder Emil Kraepelin.His achievement in the history of schizophrenia is that the first time he spent the brink between psychotic disorders and manic depression.
history of the disease schizophrenia has changed dramatically since 1908, when Eugen Bleuler (Swiss psychiatrist) described schizophrenia by entering a term in psychiatry, designating it as an independent disease, which is fundamentally different from dementia - dementia.His merit is that he has proved the existence of the disease not only in the early years of people, but also in adulthood.A distinctive feature of acts not dementia, and such features as a violation of the unity in the mind, as well as at the level of a violation of associative thinking.Bleuler emphasized the following diagnostic criteria: reduction of affect, autism, violation of associations as well as ambivalence.
ambivalence he took to the main symptoms of schizophrenia, which are divided into three types: emotional, strong-willed, intelligent.
emotional ambivalence combines the positive and negative sense of an event, person, thing.
strong-willed ambivalence involves endless torment fluctuations between opposite decisions, as well as the inability to choose between them and eventually leading to the abandonment of a particular decision at all.
intellectual ambivalence lies in alternation, as well as the simultaneous existence of mutually exclusive and contradictory arguments ideas.
In the history of schizophrenia has changed when Bleuler proposed to divide the disease into four subgroups: paranoid, hebephrenia, catatonia and simple schizophrenia.But most of Bleuler referred latent schizophrenia.He openly confessed ignorance about the nature of schizophrenia.Furthermore, by studying the initial symptoms, he believed that the disease a little predictable, and difficult to predict the future.
The First World War brought the issue before the climax of schizophrenia.
history of schizophrenia is filled with new philosophies, new methods of treatment, leading to the blossoming of psychoanalysis.Bleuler uses psychoanalysis as an explanatory theory to describe a group of schizophrenic psychoses, without mentioning it as a therapeutic agent.
in 1917 shocked the world two epidemics: Spanish flu, as well as sleeping sickness, which has the second name sleeping sickness, is characterized by acute hallucinatory delirium.It is believed that sleeping sickness has a direct relation to schizophrenia.At the same time, methods were developed schizophrenia.The same period has attracted interest in the treatment of schizophrenia, sleep.
Since 1921 Doctor Jacob uses Chrys barbiturates for getting sick from schizophrenia automatism.But this method is not caught because it was dangerous because of possible overdose and in 1925 of 311 treated patients die 15.
Since 1930, the replacement of barbiturates to produce less toxic sedative containing barbituric paraldehyde amilengidrat and hrolalgidrat.Even then, experts began to suspect that there is derived from barbituric heavy substance abuse and, in spite of this, the drug continues to be used half a century.
history of the disease of schizophrenia since 1933, filled with new discoveries.Manfred shekels Vienna Medical Society presented the results of their work on the hypoglycemic shocks that could positively affect the mental state of schizophrenia cases.
later, the concept of schizophrenia is officially admitted by all psychiatrists in the world, had to find signs for the diagnosis, as well as the causes of disease and how to treat it properly.The scientists involved in the present day.
first half of the twentieth century, schizophrenia was associated with a hereditary defect and patients in many countries have become victims of manipulation proponents of eugenics.Thousands of people were sterilized in the United States, Nazi Germany and the Nordic countries.Many patients with schizophrenia were victims of the Nazi killing program with the stigma of "mental unfitness".
In 1950 Manfred Shekel comes to the conclusion that it was insulin shock has a real therapeutic effect on patients with schizophrenia.
Next in the history of schizophrenia appear Hungarian researcher from Hungary Laszlo Meduna van, which proposed the following method for the treatment of diseases: induction of seizures in a patient injections of camphor, and further injections kordiazolom or pentilenetrazolom.In 1937 Laszlo Meduna van summarized and published the work "Cramping treatment of schizophrenia."
Along with Hungarian researcher Professor Roman Lucio Bini, together with assistant Hugo Kellert seizures began to use electricity.
In the history of schizophrenia appears first patient who achieved remission, having electric shock treatment.
special significance in the history of attempts to treat schizophrenia occupied by psychosurgery that have taken scientists.Since 1888 start the first experiments in this area, which belong to the Gottlieb Burkhardt.In 1935, an International Congress of Neurology in London, where one of the report is dedicated to the physiology of the frontal lobes.Further significant results achieved in psychosurgery Egas Moniz Portuguese nevrolog, but widely used in the treatment of schizophrenia, his methods have not received.
history of schizophrenia expanded with biochemical era, which began in 1952.This year was marked by the discovery of neuroleptics.
During the Second World War, French doctors used a derivative of promethazine and phenothiazines.Its effect on the patients was sedation.A little later, in 1950, in the treatment of schizophrenia begin to use another drug, called Largaktil.Applying it to the anesthesia, it was noticed that the drug has a specific effect on the psyche.Patients become apathetic and indifferent.The mechanism of action of antipsychotic drugs has reduced the severity of hallucinatory-delusional symptoms, but with side effects, further treatment comes to a standstill.Still, doctors gained confidence in the healing of the sick, who acquired over time, expressed human traits.
Diagnostic description of the disease, over time, undergo changes after the US-British study conducted in 1971, it became clear that the United States is diagnosed with schizophrenia more often than in Europe.
history of schizophrenia in 80 years has replenished the discovery of atypical neuroleptics.This discovery has facilitated the positive and negative symptoms.Their selective action has been a wide range of symptoms of schizophrenia on and much easier to carry, which greatly facilitated the life of the mentally ill.These properties were the fact that they were appointed around the world for the treatment of schizophrenia.
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