Metabolic disorders



acidosis photo Acidosis - is a certain state of the body, which is characterized by a disturbance of acid-alkaline balance.If acidosis is formed relative or absolute excess amount of acid protons are given with respect to joining the bases.The development of the disturbances in the body contributes to insufficient removal from it of organic acids and their oxidation.Thus, febrile illness, gastrointestinal disorders, fasting trigger delay in the body of these acids.As a result, the urine produced acetone and acetoacetic acid, ie acetonuria, and in very severe cases, coma develops.

As a rule, is characterized by several types of acidosis.Among them, this state is classified in the hydrogen index: acidosis compensated type (at a pH of 7.35 with increased heart rate, respiration and blood pressure), subcompensated type (pH - 7,34-7,25; cardiac arrhythmias, difficulty breathing, vomiting, diarrhea), such as non-compensated (with a pH less than 7.24; disrupted the central nervous system, SSS, gastroin

testinal tract etc.).Furthermore, acidosis distinguished by etiological origin.It is a gas (respiratory or breathing) as a result of poor ventilation lung or breathing high carbon dioxide and non-gas, which is divided into metabolic, excretory, exogenous mixed.

If metabolic acidosis acid products accumulate in tissues that are not bound or are destroyed in the body.For excretory acidosis is characterized by difficulty in the process of removing the kidney acids nonvolatile properties or increased gastrointestinal loss of reason.In cases when the body receives a large number of substances or acids which form acid under certain metabolic processes, developing an exogenous form of acidosis.But as a result of connecting multiple acidosis simultaneously celebrate the formation of the mixed type.

main method of treatment of the disease state is the elimination of the etiological factor that has led to the development of acidosis and the appointment of symptomatic therapy in the form of ingestion Sodium bicarbonate and plentiful drink.

Metabolic acidosis

disturbance of acid and alkaline balance in the body in the form of a low pH and quantitative content of bicarbonate in the blood called metabolic acidosis.He is considered the most common among all types of pathological disorders.

metabolic acidosis origin develops when the body produces a lot of metabolic products origins of sour, or inability of the kidneys to remove them from the body.

Metabolic acidosis is of several types.Firstly, it is a form of diabetic disorders KSCHB, ie diabetic ketoacidosis, which develops in the course of uncontrolled diabetes with an excess in the body of ketone bodies, which are weak organic acid character.Secondly, it acidosis hyperchloraemic origin formed due to significant losses of sodium bicarbonate, for example as a result of diarrhea.Third, it is lactic acidosis, in which the body builds up lactic acid that may be associated with alcohol abuse;malignant neoplasms;intense physical activity over the long term.And against the backdrop of a lack of the liver;hypoglycemia;when taking certain medication such as salicylates;seizures;lack of oxygen in the form of severe anemia, heart failure and shock.

Sometimes, metabolic acidosis can be caused by renal acidosis as a result of kidney disease;methanol poisoning, ethylene glycol, and aspirin;strong dehydration.

Symptoms of metabolic acidosis is caused by the primary pathology or condition, contributing to its emergence.As a rule, metabolic acidosis the patient begins breathing quickened, he is in a stunned, soporous or inhibited state.Severe form of this pathological condition can cause shock and eventually death.But sometimes metabolic acidosis manifests itself in the relatively easy chronically flowing form.

To diagnose this disease is carried out certain tests, that is, blood is taken from an artery in the presence of the gas composition of electrolytes in blood serum and urine test for pH.Blood tests provide an indication of acidosis in the body, which was formed as a result of inadequate functioning of breath or is it really pure metabolic acidosis genesis.And to determine its root causes may be required and other methods.

All therapy of metabolic acidosis consists of treating the underlying disease.For improving the disturbance of acid and alkali exchange administered intravenous sodium bicarbonate or in the form of ingestion of sodium hydrogencarbonate.

possible complications of metabolic acidosis can be a shock and death, so all diseases that can lead to this pathological condition should be monitored by the medical staff.Thus, careful monitoring and timely treatment of diabetes of the first type may prevent diabetic ketoacidosis - a type of metabolic acidosis.

Acidosis causes

Acidosis is considered today a widespread phenomenon of the modern world.But for the normal functioning of our body needs to maintain its internal temperature and acidity in the absolute constancy.Since the normal acidity is pH 7.35-7.45 with indicators, the acidosis - a pathological condition in which the acidity is reduced below pH 7.35.

Causes acidification of the body perform certain factors, such as polluted environment;way of life, which is very little movement and, of course, the wrong diet.This all causes of poor quality of life in the form of headaches and fatigue.

Unfortunately, modern man eats today such products, which lead to the formation of his acidosis.In addition, a mistake to think that acidic foods cause acidification or acidosis in the body.Generally, the acids are the result of metabolism by cleavage and processing of foodstuffs which contain fats, carbohydrates, phosphates, amino acids containing sulfur.The process of the cleavage of these substances form organic acid which may undergo neutralizing anions of fresh fruits and vegetables entering the body, and also because of the alkaline substance which are formed as a result of metabolism.

To maintain the acid and alkaline balance necessary buffer system of blood, as well as the lungs and kidneys.With the light output from the body volatile acid and kidney - nonvolatile.In addition, the acidity of the organism may affect human nutrition, mental status, and even the time of day.Typically, the second half of the night is characterized by a large release of acid into the urine metabolites, which can be determined in the amount of one percent with litmus paper.A 99% acid excreted in the urine in a bound state.Normal urine pH values ​​correspond to the values ​​from 6.2 to 6.9.If these values ​​are reduced from 4.5 to 6.0, it indicates that the body receives a large number of products that trigger the body's acid.

In addition, severe lung disease, kidney or general metabolic disorders can cause the development of acidosis.But many forms of chronic diseases can lead to latent acidosis, which will have a negative long-term effects on the body.Also still there are several diseases that cause rheumatic disease states, cancer, tooth decay, allergies, chronic inflammation of the tissue properties and neuroses.

Acidosis symptoms

Almost all signs and symptoms of acidosis in light or moderate flows related to the degree of the existing underlying disease.But the picture is symptomatic of the disease state depends on the presence of acids in the blood.

As a rule, the main signs of acidosis are hidden under the main symptoms of the disease and quite difficult to distinguish.For example, a light form of acidosis occurs virtually asymptomatic or sometimes marked fatigue, nausea and vomiting.But in severe metabolic acidosis appears hyperpnoea which initially characterized deep breath, and then, and frequency (Kussmaul's syndrome).In some cases, there are signs of reduced volume ETSZH, loss of bases through the gastrointestinal tract.In addition, heavily flowing acidosis causes of circulatory shock as a result of breach of heart rate and response vessels at the periphery, on the catecholamines, as well as causing stunned.

symptoms of acidosis on the background of an adequate form of respiratory compensation, and the presence of a weak acid in the blood (acidemia) expressed rather weakly than the metabolic and respiratory acidosis in combination.This disrupted the conducting system of the heart when the blood pH values ​​less than 7.2.Greatly increases the risk of arrhythmias with existing cardiac abnormalities or other violations of electrolyte metabolism.As a result of reduced acidemia reaction vessels and the heart to catecholamines, which causes further fall in blood pressure in the presence of hypovolemia or shock.

If acidosis is enhanced breathing, develops insulin resistance, rapidly breaks down protein and inhibits the synthesis of ATP.In severe form of this pathological state it violated the metabolic processes in the brain, which causes a constant drowsiness and coma.

acute form of metabolic acidosis manifested by diarrhea or insufficient blood supply to the tissues.Usually, it is characterized by lactic acidosis, which is easily detected by physical examination.Reduced blood flow suggests dehydration, acute blood loss, shock or heart defect.A characteristic symptom of chronic metabolic acidosis in the child, coupled with insufficient kidney function, may be slowing its development.A spontaneous onset of polyuria, indicates the presence of diabetic ketoacidosis and not previously diagnosed diabetes.Congenital defects of metabolism manifested convulsions or inhibition of a general nature.

hepatomegaly with metabolic acidosis observed against liver failure, acquired heart defects, sepsis.

Lab develops symptoms of changes in indicators of electrolytes, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, as well as urine.

Fasting or poor nutrition develops ketosis and gastroenteritis.In addition, when combined kidney failure and high normal anion gap.

Acidosis and alkalosis

majority of pathological processes that occur in the body can affect the balance of acids and bases in its internal environment, causing acidosis (acidification) and alkalosis (alkalization).

Compensated acidosis and alkalosis is a change of the absolute amount of carbonic acid and sodium hydrogen carbonate, but their ratio remains normal 1:20.

Acidosis and alkalosis decompensated properties are states in which the changes occur not only the total amount of acids and bases, but a shift of these relations or towards acids or bases to the side.

signs of respiratory disorders, in contrast to non-respiratory stress levels are carbon dioxide and excess bases.

form of non-respiratory acidosis often develops in the body due to the accumulation of various metabolic products that have not undergone oxidation.These include lactic acid, acetoacetic and hydroxybutyric.A significant amount of ketone bodies occurs at reduced glycogen content in the liver as a result of intense fat breakdown, on a background of oxygen starvation, disorders of the citric acid cycle.Furthermore, various pathological conditions only help to increase concentration of ketone bodies in several times, although a significant amount of excreted by the kidneys in the form of salts of sodium and potassium.And this becomes the result of the loss of a large number of bases and the development of decompensated acidosis character.

Short Form acidosis occurs as a result of intense exercise as a result of the formation of lactic acid.This can manifest itself in diseases of the heart and lungs on a background of oxygen starvation.But with impaired kidney excretion of organic amines, sulfates, phosphates can form excretory or metabolic acidosis.As a rule, the majority of renal disease accompanied by similar syndromes.

When diarrhea is marked loss of a significant amount of alkali and the subsequent development of metabolic acidosis or alkaline digestive juices released by enteritis.As a result of acidosis are included in the work of the compensatory-adaptive mechanisms that are trying to maintain the acid and alkaline homeostasis.

To compensate for blood pH shifts that occur in the body, is characterized by rapid entry into the mechanisms involved in the excessive amount of acid dilution liquid present outside the cells.Thus they react with alkalis and buffer systems cells fluids outside.As a result of this reduced alkalosis and acidosis increases.

acidosis is considered an important feature of hyperkalemia.Excess amount of hydrogen ions partially extends into the bone, where it is the exchange of cations mineralized parts of the skeleton.Subsequently, from the bones into blood to sodium and calcium, and thus, against prolonged heavy exchange acidosis observed softening, i.e. bone decalcification.This increases the concentration of calcium cations, sodium and potassium in the plasma.

Additionally, metabolic acidosis characterized by entering into the capillaries and veins of a significant number of acid and reduction of carbon dioxide.However powerful the carbonate buffering system helps to reduce the formation of carbonic acid from the acid.It is very unstable and quickly from it produces water and carbon dioxide.Thus, the system starts the "blood - light."As a result, excited breath, hyperventilation develops in the lungs and the blood is released from a significant amount of carbon dioxide to restore the equilibrium between carbonic acid and sodium bicarbonate.This saves hyperchloremia and hypernatremia.

In case of a mechanical ventilation observed accumulation of carbon dioxide in the body and then acidosis is a form of uncompensated.

kidneys in compensation acidosis perform a minor role, since they formed bicarbonate and filtered by a small amount, and those who have been filtering undergo reabsorbirovaniyu.But at the same acidity in urine increases due to a significant content therein titrated acids.Most of them is a free organic acids.

Acidosis and alkalosis can cause a variety of disorders of the body.This manifests periodic type of breathing, the deep fall of vascular tone, a violation of the vascular bed capacity in relation to blood pressure, decreased cardiac output and blood pressure.As a result of reduced blood flow in the kidney and broken processes of filtration and reabsorption.As a rule, these pathologies cause changes in water and electrolyte balance.

a long process of acidosis and alkalosis bones become soft and formed decalcification.In the muscle tissue of the myocardium decreases the amount of potassium in the plasma increases as the cation content.All of these processes are the causes of heart disease.