Metabolic disorders



hemosiderosis photo hemosiderosis - is excessive deposition of hemosiderin in the body.Hemosiderin a specific pigment and its deposition occurs due to the rapid decay of blood cells - red blood cells, and hemosiderin in the process of metabolism high absorption in the small intestine at erythrogenesis, in violation of the exchange of pigments that contain iron.

hemosiderosis caused by the problem of endogenous and exogenous origin.Endogenous include both extensive destruction of red blood cells, and excessive iron absorption in the intestine.Exogenous include blood transfusions.Hemosiderosis may be a distinct disease.The following types of hemosiderosis: idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis and essential, liver hemosiderosis, hemochromatosis and hemosiderosis local.

hemosiderosis reasons

In the adult body contains about 4.5-5 g.iron.It is mainly represented as compounds of hemosiderin, ferritin and hemoproteins.These elements act as reserve of iron which is a protein complex.Hemoglobin is con

sidered the main representative haemoproteins.When excessive amounts of iron in the human organism there is an accumulation of hemosiderin in tissue.

hemosiderosis is often one of the symptoms of certain diseases.It is found in the character of hereditary anemia (enzimopatii and hemoglobinopathies) and acquired hemolytic anemia genesis, in which there is a quick breakdown of blood cells (erythrocytes).Also hemosiderosis may occur in the aplastic anemia and reflex because of reduced supply of iron in the body.

known that when brucellosis and malaria, as well as in cases of poisoning by certain toxic substances (hemosiderosis of the liver), cirrhosis of the liver, excessive blood transfusions may develop the disease.Children can be idiopathic hemosiderosis, in which up to now and can not identify the causes.

But hemosiderosis main reasons include: the excessive consumption of iron supplements (Sorbifer Maltofer or at high doses);blood transfusion, especially if they are carried out several times per week (for therapy or operations other hemolytic diseases);hemosiderin increased absorption in the gastrointestinal tract;impaired metabolism of hemosiderin.

hemosiderosis can lead to the defeat of the internal organs, including the heart and liver.With hemosiderosis may be linked hereditary diseases, hemolytic anemia, autoimmune disease character, malaria, etc.

If you suspect hemosiderosis and to identify its causes, please refer to hematology, infectious diseases, gastroenterology, genetics.

hemosiderosis skin

hemosiderosis of the skin - is pathological changes caused by accumulation of hemosiderin in the dermis - the pigment that contains iron.This pigment is formed from hemoglobin during hemorrhage or accumulates in the skin, where there is an accumulation in the blood with increased intestinal absorption.

hemosiderosis of the skin may occur pigment spots to 2.5-3 centimeters in diameter, which can be yellow or dark brown.Along with this is usually seen telangiectasia (small expansion rack capillaries and blood vessels), petechiae (small, pinpoint hemorrhages) and atrophied patches on the skin.

in the diagnosis of local hemosiderosis of the skin using the "symptom plait" (petechiae remain at the place which is compressed harness) and "canned beer sample" (petechiae remain in place and imposing pressing banks).According to the diagnostic methods pay attention to the reduction of the stability of the capillaries.

depending on the location and nature of the lesions are several types of skin hemosiderosis.These include: Schamberg disease (multiple point gemorrogicheskie spots without flushing with the transition into the expression spots yellowish-brown color), teleangiektaticheskaya annular purpura Mayokki (round, isolated located petechial rash with necrotic areas located around the hair follicle), net (senile) hemosiderosisskin (pigmentation and purple dot on the back of the hands and forearms), purpurozny lichenoid and pigmented dermatitis Guzhero-bumps (papules are small flat without atrophy).

hemosiderosis skin treatment administered after the patient visit a dermatologist in addition, also a therapist and immunologist.Assign usually Ascorutin 1 tab.3 times a day or 0.1 g Ruthin.3 p / day, ascorbic acid 0.25 g.3 times a day, diphenhydramine, 0.05 g.3 p / day of calcium chloride 10% and 15 ml of 3 p / day orally, Calcium gluconate 0.5 gr.3 p / day.These drugs can improve the strength of the vascular wall.Treating them continue for a month to improve the appearance of skin.The prognosis for a favorable gemosideroze skin.

pulmonary hemosiderosis

idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis - a pathological condition of the lungs in which there are periodic hemorrhage in their alveoli.In such hemorrhages blood while filling the alveoli disintegrates with the simultaneous formation of hemosiderin.Hemosiderin "attack" alveolar macrophages (killer cells) thereby takes its deposition in the interstitial connective tissue.After some time there is a seal lung tissue and its replacement by connective.Because of these changes lead to respiratory failure.For pulmonary hemosiderosis characterized by periods of remission and relapse.

causes of pulmonary hemosiderosis scientists still can not determine until the end.In theory it is a question of immune factors.For some reason the human body perceives the elements of the native vessel wall as foreign and begins to actively produce antibodies thereto.When antibodies attack comes a defeat and the loss of area of ​​the vessel wall and hemorrhage.

hemosiderosis Lung Symptoms include: wet hearty cough;hemoptysis (considered one of the leading symptoms, and the amount allocated to the blood can reach pronounced bleeding);shortness of breath on exertion, pain in the chest;weight loss;pain in bones and joints;fever;dizziness, stuffy ears - signs soldier's heart;anemia, weakness, decreased performance;cyanosis of the skin and mucous membranes.

Diagnosis includes: inspection of the skin, auscultation of the lungs and chest organs, laboratory blood tests (CBC with the calculation of hemoglobin and red blood cells, the biochemical with the calculation of the level of iron, bilirubin), laboratory diagnosis of sputum (reveal siderofagi - breakdown products of bloodand erythrocytes).Also, make history and patient complaints.Spend X-ray study of the chest, and a CT scan of the lungs.In some cases, spend spinografiyu - examination of respiratory function, which allows you to evaluate the conduction of the respiratory tract.During bronchoscopy produced fence flush with the walls of the alveoli and bronchi using a bronchoscope that is introduced into the bronchi.When gemosideroze light detected in swabs siderofagi and red blood cells.In exceptional cases, resort to biopsy sampling for the affected area in order to study the composition of its cells.

Treatment of pulmonary hemosiderosis is therapy aimed at eliminating abnormal reactions of the immune system.For such therapy is the appointment of cytostatics and corticosteroids.It may also require the appointment of bronchodilator drugs, inhaled with kilorodom, hemostatic drugs.It is important both to treat anemia.

prognosis of idiopathic pulmonary adverse gemosideroze.The disease is progressive and difficult to treat, which leads to the patient's disability.Pulmonary hemosiderosis complications are bleeding in the lungs, pulmonary infarction, respiratory failure, pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary heart syndrome.

hemosiderosis signs

hemosiderosis The most common symptoms are: coughing up blood, anemia hypochromic nature, bilateral symmetrical small foci in the lungs, which are found in the performance of X-ray examination.The disease can occur both acute and have an undulating course with relapses.During an exacerbation hemosiderosis patients complained of cough, wheezing, expectoration of sputum with blood, heart palpitations, pain in the chest and the internal organs of the gastrointestinal tract.This irradiation pain attributed release fluid from the lungs into the abdominal cavity.

During the examination of patients show a pallor or yellowing of the skin, sclera, and cyanosis of the skin tissue, mucous membranes.Especially ikterichnost sclera is typical for liver hemosiderosis.During percussion lung sounds short.When askultatsii over areas of blunting listened variegated wheezing wet nature.Can join obustruktivny syndrome or pulmonary infarction, for which there are certain changes in the clinical picture of the disease.It may also be an enlarged liver or spleen.

When gemosideroze skin recovered its primary and secondary form.For the development of the primary causes of skin hemosiderosis are: bacterial infections of the skin, neuroendocrine pathology (diabetes), hypertension (vascular disease with damage to their walls).Causes of secondary hemosiderosis of the skin may include: dermatitis, or eczema, skin injury, disorders of blood circulation in the legs (varicose veins).Local hemosiderosis shown on the type of point brownish spots, which are often located on the lower limbs disserminirovanno as foci.

Children hemosiderosis develops between the ages of 5-8 years.Children complain of shortness of breath at rest and weakness.The color of sputum by coughing is a rusty color, streaked with blood.Body temperature may rise to febrile digits (38-39 ° C).Respiratory function is severely impaired.This crisis takes about 5 days and gradually passes.

To diagnose hemosiderosis important to conduct laboratory and biochemical blood, sputum, X-ray examination.

hemosiderosis treated

Treatment hemosiderosis is to appoint a glucocorticosteroid drugs and symptomatic therapy.In some cases, it may require the exclusion of dairy foods for detecting blood precipitins.

the treatment of hemosiderosis prescribed Prednisolone 1 mg / kg to improve clinical performance.It may also be administered deferoxamine 1-3 g / day at gemosideroze lungs.This drug has proven itself not only in the treatment of idiopathic hemosiderosis, but also in the treatment of hemosiderosis of the skin, liver and hemosiderosis gemahromatoza.Before therapy is necessary to accurately establish the diagnosis, conducting laboratory and diagnostic research, as well as to determine the total iron binding capacity of blood.

addition deferoxamine can be used calcium supplements, ascorbic acid, angioprotekislotory.

When gemosideroze skin prescribe corticosteroid ointments topical treatment, cryotherapy.

In anemia and prescribe iron supplements heparin.In exceptional cases, you may need a blood transfusion.Against the increased thrombotic reactions in the blood may require the appointment of acetylsalicylic acid.

During treatment hemosiderosis important to consume foods high in calcium and vitamin C, vitamin B. In addition to drug therapy used polimineraly and vitamin complexes (Ascorutin, Neyromultvit, Vitrum, etc.).To improve the symptoms of cerebral circulation in vegetative-vascular dystonia, which is often accompanied by hemosiderosis, prescribe nootropics (Glycine, Pikamellon, Pantogam, Tsitirizin).

Prevention hemosiderosis includes a rehabilitation course in the sanatorium places to conduct prophylactic drugs to improve the circulatory system of the body and prophylactic treatment of anemia.

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