Hypovitaminosis - a pathological condition of the human body, the condition occurs when an imbalance between the processes of entering the required amount of consumption of substances and fortified them.
course, vitamins are not vital structural unit, but the lack of content affects the state health and adult and child, as representatives of a group of vitamins are directly involved in important physiological reactions of the organism.Many vitamin-like substances are included in the structure of the essential enzymes and hormonal substances that have a regulatory function of physiological vital processes of the human body.
This pathology is dangerous because in most cases, clinical signs of vitamin deficiencies can simulate other diseases, but their treatment will not be effective until the establishment of the correct diagnosis, which can be diagnosed only after the application of high-precision laboratory research methods.
On the admission process, the deposit and the attrition rate of vitamins affect the whole spectrum of etiopathogenetic factors, so the impact of each of them, individually or collectively can cause a manifestation of vitamin deficiencies.
All versions of etiological factors in some way connected with pathological processes taking place in the body - namely, insufficient intake of vitamins in food, impaired assimilation fortified compounds, poor development of the normal flora in the gut, which is involved in the synthesis of a number of vitaminsand increase of the human body in various vitamins.
Due to the fact that vitamins are the product of organic origin, and only a handful are able to synthesize vitamins in the body, the main reason for their failure is a violation of the terms of their dietary intake.Nutritional vitamin deficiency occurs in a situation where:
- the daily human diet contains a small number of fortified foods;
- accelerate the process of destruction of vitamins under the influence of improper handling and storage of food (long-term storage or heat treatment using high temperature);
- a person uses a large number of products with antivitamin action, for example, egg white prevents absorption of biotin);
- there is insufficient consumption of animal protein and complex carbohydrates.
Hypovitaminosis children often provoked by alimentary reasons for any breach of the proper administration of the first weaning foods, the use of mixtures of non-adapted to feeding a baby who is not breastfed.
great importance in maintaining the normal balance of vitamins has different groups of the intestinal flora, as the microorganisms in the gut are directly involved in the synthesis of a variety of vitamins and vitamin-like substances.Therefore, intestinal dysbiosis arising from prolonged use of antibacterial drugs row in virtually 100% of cases accompanied by the development of hypovitaminosis.Inhibitory effect on intestinal microflora also have a variety of drugs used as chemotherapy for cancer and tuberculosis.
In a situation where a person uses a sufficient number of fortified foods may also be manifestations of vitamin deficiencies, since the human body can disrupt the absorption of vitamins caused by endogenous and exogenous factors.So, the main cause malabsorption of vitamins is a wide range of intestinal diseases, especially thin his department of infectious and non-infectious chronic nature.Furthermore, the presence of even small amounts of enteric pathogens and parasitic infestation has an extremely negative impact on the process of assimilation of vitamin-like substances.
hypovitaminosis A separate group of "vitamin deficiency consumption" that occurs in situations where the human body is exposed to unusual stress influences (pregnancy, lactation, puberty phase of intensive growth, intense physical and psycho-emotional activity).
Symptoms of hypovitaminosis
Despite the fact that the vitamin deficiency in the body is accompanied by a common clinical symptoms in the form of reduced working capacity, expressed weakness, recurrent episodes of dizziness, lowering of mood and insomnia, though these manifestations do not have specificity and do not allow evenan experienced physician to suspect the presence of hypovitaminosis.However, a pronounced lack of this or that category of vitamins, accompanied by the appearance of typical signs of knowing that an experienced specialist in time starts examination and treatment of patients with hypovitaminosis.
Vitamin A deficiency
example, vitamin deficiencies of group A, occurs when the patient's long-term unbalanced diet with insufficient consumption of products of animal origin and carrots, as it is in this vegetable contains carotene, is directly involved in the synthesis of vitamin A. In addition to the groupof the disease accompanying violation of absorptive capacity of the small intestine is also often accompanied by hypovitaminosis this type.
principal organs, in which vitamin A is stored under normal conditions is the retina of the eye, the brain and the liver, and therefore the lack of this vitamin affects the functioning of these structures is the human body.The appearance of a patient of any age complaints of blurred vision, especially the weakening of the so-called "night blindness" should lead one to believe the therapist, that person has a vitamin deficiency because the target organ in the Vitamin A deficiency is just the organ of vision.
In addition, people with Vitamin A deficiency are more likely to suffer from inflammatory changes in the mucous membrane of the conjunctiva, which are two-way in nature and appear as a burning sensation, itching, watery eyes, and the appearance of purulent discharge in the inner corner of the eye.
Due to the fact that Vitamin A deficiency is accompanied by systemic mucosal damage in all organs is a change in a tendency to excessive dryness and desquamation of the skin, the appearance of a dry cough and signs of erosive gastritis.In childhood, primary manifestations of this disease is a tendency to the appearance of atopic dermatitis, stomatitis and oral candidiasis.Persons suffering from Vitamin A deficiency most often exposed to prolonged duration of infectious respiratory diseases, urogenital and digestive system.Note that the appearance of the above symptoms can be observed only when the level of the deposited level of vitamin A that is extremely rare, because the costs to cover all the body needs daily intake of only 5,000 IU of carotene, and during pregnancy, this demand increases by 30%.
second frequency of vitamin A deficiency is a group of B1 vitamin deficiencies.This category of vitamin deficiencies should not be attributed to the category of nutritional deficiency as Vitamin A deficiency, for example, so as thiamine is contained in a wide variety of foods that are included in the daily diet of every person (vegetables, all meats, eggs and yeast).This pathology should be considered as increased intake and malabsorption of vitamin B1.
So, a woman during pregnancy need more thiamine, and patients suffering from a chronic form of enteritis and colitis of gipermotonomu type simply do not absorb this vitamin.The debut of the clinical manifestations of hypovitaminosis B1 are generally sluggish and accompanied by the emergence of non-specific symptoms as irritability, disturbances of sleep a night, violating disability.Joining the above symptoms disgust for food, memory impairment, emotional instability, flatulence and a tendency to constipation evidence of disease progression.
When expressed hypovitaminosis B1 patient observed violations of skin sensitivity and progressive muscle weakness, which has reflected in the appearance of the patient in the form of asymmetrical muscle atrophy.
Hypovitaminosis group B2 develops when a person has an existing chronic disease of the gastrointestinal tract, in which the absorption of riboflavin under normal conditions.In more of the group of vitamins deficiency affects the oral mucosa and conjunctiva.The lips of the patient have numerous microdamages of which periodically performs blood at the corners of the lips and deep cracks are noted, accompanied by severe pain when opening the mouth wide.The main specific symptom hypovitaminosis B2 is the defeat of the oral mucosa, which becomes gray shade, which stands out against the background of red and crimson smooth surface of the tongue.The defeat of view is photophobia, blurred vision and frequent episodes of purulent conjunctivitis.
Hypovitaminosis group B6 is a rare disease and is more common in pediatric practice in violation of the conditions of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, and manifests itself in a lag of physical development, increased seizure activity and anemizatsii body of the child.
Patients adult age category B6 vitamin deficiencies affecting the structure of the nervous system and skin, and therefore the first manifestations of this disease are polyneuritis and pustular lesions of the skin.Seizures occur only in severe vitamin deficiency in patients suffering from alcoholism.
Hypovitaminosis group B12 in hematology is allocated as a separate nosology, which has the name "pernicious anemia".In a clinical symptom of this pathology are three main syndromes: anemic, neurological and gastroenterokolitichesky.Anemic syndrome manifested as appearance of circulatory distal extremities, weakness and headache caused by hypoxic damage brain structures.Neurological lesions are in violation of all kinds of sensitivity and suppression of tendon reflexes.Symptoms suggestive of development gastroenterokoliticheskogo syndrome, are a perversion of taste preferences, nausea, aching pain in the upper abdomen, with no clear localization, alternating episodes of constipation and loose stools.
Hypovitaminosis of the group is classified as a nutritional deficiency of ascorbic acid is observed among those who do not consume enough fruits and vegetables in their raw form, as the bulk vitamin C is found in citrus fruits, sauerkraut and berriescultures.
Lack of ascorbic acid content in the child's body causes the development of a whole range of clinical symptoms as the backlog is not only physical, but also mental development of bone deformities of various localization, aversion to food.Individuals adult category C vitamin deficiencies seen the emergence of multiple bruising, bleeding gums, intermittent fever, hemodynamic and respiratory disorders of varying degrees of intensity.
Hypovitaminosis group D belongs to the category of pediatric pathology, as in the adult population of this vitamin deficiency hardly occurs.Especially vitamin E is that to maintain a normal level in the body, it not only comes from food, but also independently synthesized under the influence of UV rays.
children suffering from rickets or hypovitaminosis D group, is easily distinguished from their peers, as they have a specific phenotype (strain of cerebral and facial parts of the skull, keeled chest deformation, curvature of the limbs).In a situation, there is a code of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult, showing signs of osteoporosis in the form of reduced bone mineral density and a predisposition to the appearance of pathological fractures.
There may be a congenital form of hypovitaminosis D, which is a consequence of suffering a vitamin D deficiency in the mother during pregnancy and the manifestation of which is a gross abnormalities of bone formation.In addition to violations of the outdoor activities, congenital rickets can be triggered by severe toxicity in the third trimester of pregnancy and chronic extragenital pathology.
Hypovitaminosis group PP is a rare disease and occurs in persons engaged in extreme starvation as a method of weight loss, as well as children suffering from prolonged diarrhea infectious nature.
manifestations of vitamin A deficiency in this category are a progressive cognitive impairment, trophic skin damage and symptoms of enterocolitis, which in itself contributes to the progression of hypovitaminosis.Patients with hypovitaminosis PP constantly feels weakness, irritability and frustration night's sleep.
Hypovitaminosis Group E manifested by progressive muscular dystrophy and sterility, and therefore women need to be sure to eat a sufficient amount of vegetable fats (corn oil, sea buckthorn oil).
Hypovitaminosis of K is accompanied by violation of the formation of prothrombin in the liver, which is directly involved in blood clotting.The result of the lack of content in the body is vikasola tendency to hemorrhagic phenomena, which are quite difficult to remove.The most common source of bleeding is the nasal and oral cavities, but in severe vitamin K deficiency appears generalized petechial rashes all over the skin, and even the phenomenon of intracranial hemorrhage.
Among therapeutic interventions for the treatment of hypovitaminosis is the most effective replacement therapy with vitamin-fortified products, as well as adequate consumption of foods containing the maximum concentration of a particular vitamin.The key to successful treatment of vitamin deficiencies is considered a correction of eating behavior, as in the use of a balanced diet in the human body do not come only vitamins in pure form, but the substance involved in their synthesis.
various pharmaceutical companies offer a wide range of medical products containing one or a group of vitamins.When hypovitaminoses most experts recommend the use of medicines multivitamin containing vitamin several components in the therapeutic ratio.The advantages of using multivitamin preparations versus monotherapy concluded that insufficient content of one group of vitamins may adversely affect the balance of other vitamins, as well as in that vitamin deficiency is accompanied by most patients deficient several vitamins.
when administered to patients with hypovitaminosis of a multivitamin preparation to be taken into account that each drug has a different ratio of the components and their doses.