Hypervitaminosis - is in dire emergency arises pathological condition of the body, triggered by toxic exposure to elevated concentrations of a particular vitamin.
vitamins and vitamin-like nutrients are organic compounds, ensuring the health of all living beings, so each person tries to eat enough of them through food or by artificial means, by receiving pharmaceutical drugs.
Currently, there is a significant increase in the incidence hypervitaminosis and this fact is explained by the free sale of fortified products and biological supplements containing vitamin-like substance in the networks of pharmacies.Most people uncontrollably take higher doses of drugs containing vitamins, assuming that in the case of increased concentration of excess vitamins will be printed independently from the body.It is a common misconception leads to hypervitaminosis have broad category of patients.
This nosological unit should be regarded as a form of poisoning organism, since excess vitami
All groups of vitamins are divided into two broad categories - water-soluble and fat-soluble.Excessive concentration of water-soluble vitamin is extremely rare, only in the case of severe overdose fortified injecting drugs since the required amount of vitamin absorbed into the blood, and the rest of the rapidly excreted in the urine.The elimination of fat-soluble vitamins is much more difficult, because in addition to absorption into the bloodstream, this group of vitamins accumulate in the fatty tissue of various organs.
Undoubtedly, the main cause of intoxication is gipervitaminoza synthetic forms of vitamins and vitamin-like substances, but in some cases vitamin poisoning can occur even when you receive a small number of them, under the condition are hypersensitive to a particular vitamin preparation.
Furthermore, hypervitaminosis promotes one or the whole group of vitamins, application of the same diet with excessive use of products having a high concentration of a vitamin.
addition to complications caused by the direct toxic effect of increasing the concentration of vitamin gipervitaminoza danger is the risk of failure for the body of useful minerals.The destruction of a large amount of vitamins in the body of accumulated by-products of their metabolism, provoking a variety of metabolic disorders.
Symptoms of hypervitaminosis
All manifestations of hypervitaminosis may have an acute, sometimes chronic, each of which is characterized by specific and general clinical symptoms.Of course, hypervitaminosis symptoms may occur when an overdose of any multivitamin, but more often in pediatric and therapeutic practice, there are cases of excessive accumulation in the body of the patient fat-soluble vitamins group.
gipervitaminoza acute form develops in the situation of simultaneous admission increased by several times daily dose of one or more vitamins, and therefore, the clinical manifestations are similar to hypervitaminosis intoxication syndrome.The chronic form is characterized by latent gipervitaminoza flow and the gradual development of a clinical symptom, and therefore the diagnosis of hypervitaminosis becomes extremely difficult.
Due to the fact that each group of vitamins has its own sphere of influence and impact on the functioning of the various structures of the human body, the manifestations of the excess of their content in every form gipervitaminoza also have specific features.At the same time, for each form of hypervitaminosis inherent in the development of symptoms of intoxication syndrome (headache, dizziness, severe weakness and inability to perform daily habitual physical activity, nausea, feeling of inner trembling and frustration of a chair).
Note that hypervitaminosis of fat-soluble vitamins groups are more severe, due to their ability to be cumulated in the body and induce severe intoxication.Hypervitaminosis soluble vitamin groups are characterized by less aggressive course and do not cause long-term health problems of the patient, in this connection, as the treatment measures of this type of poisoning need only stop the flow of fortified drug in the body and stimulate the urinary function of the kidneys, as this category of vitamins are rapidly cleared from theurine.
Hypervitaminosis group A occurs during prolonged unsupervised use of the drug it forms increased daily dose (for adults over 500,000 IU in children more than 100,000 IU for six months), and manifests itself in the form of dry skin with the presence of areas of maceration, excessive hair loss and brittle nails.In regard to the effect on osteo-articular apparatus hypervitaminosis A manifests the appearance of disease in the soft tissues of seals because of periostitis in the long bones of the projection, as well as the development of arthropathy various sites, accompanied by stiffness in movements, pain and swelling of the periarticular soft tissues.
Due to the fact that vitamin A takes part in processes mediated lipid metabolism, increased its content in the body inevitably leads to hypercholesterolemia, atherosclerotic diseases manifesting symptoms.Prolonged for hypervitaminosis A is accompanied by increased production of mineralocorticoid adrenal glands, resulting in a patient may experience generalized edema syndrome.
Severe consequences hypervitaminosis A group is pregnant women, as long-term use of the drug triggers the development of congenital malformations in the fetus.The acute form of hypervitaminosis A is extremely rare and is manifested symptoms of increased intracranial pressure (headache, uncontrollable vomiting, brief loss of consciousness), fever and skin rashes that have no clear localization.
Elderly prone to the appearance of the following symptoms of hypervitaminosis A type: aggravation of chronic pathologies, arthralgia common, decreased vision, imbalance indicators lipidogram, various forms of arrhythmia, symptoms of chronic renal failure.
Hypervitaminosis D Hypervitaminosis
Group D triggered by the use of shock therapy saturating rickets, as well as a result of the treatment of dermatoses, which employ a dose calciferol exceeds 1,000,000 IU.
Signs of hypervitaminosis D in adults is the appearance of weakness, fatigue, subfebrile such as fever, functional dyspepsia phenomena, accompanied by progressive weight loss.The patient concerned constant headaches with no clear localization, the tendency to a hypertensive crisis.
signs of acute poisoning of vitamin D is the appearance of the tremor of the hands, sharp pain in the muscle of the array back and limbs, bruising of various shapes and lengths, as well as signs of general dehydration.
In a laboratory study, blood and urine tests in this situation is detected a high content of calcium.In chronic intoxication of vitamin D in a minimal dosage, a person develops a tendency to the formation of calcifications in various structures and organs (blood vessels, soft tissue, lung parenchyma), but the greatest danger involve calcification of the kidneys, because they can cause the development of chronic renal failure.An interesting fact is that in chronic hypervitaminosis D calcium leached from the bones, which is confirmed during the X-ray examination, and also accumulates in the periarticular soft tissues, causing the development of signs of bursitis and deforming arthrosis.
In old age, hypervitaminosis D contributes to the development of various forms of cardiomyopathy in conjunction with bradiaritmicheskimi cardiac disorders, generalized jaundice of the skin and mucous membranes, muscle weakness and tremors distal extremities and arthralgia different localization.If you experience symptoms of hypervitaminosis A group of pregnant women dramatically increases the risk of developmental abnormalities of bone structures.
Due to the fact that vitamin E quickly enough accumulates in the body and is difficult to split, excessive use of pharmaceutical concentrates inevitably leads to the development of redundant content.
Hypervitaminosis E manifested nonspecific clinical symptoms, so diagnosis is possible only if the available information about the long-term use of this drug dosage forms.The patient in this situation may suffer from headaches, decreased ability to work, and diarrhea.Furthermore, hypervitaminosis E provokes vitamin A and D deficiency, as vitamin E interferes with the absorption of other fat-soluble vitamins in the intestine.
Hypervitaminosis Group C is perhaps the most common form of this disease, as all are aware of the beneficial properties of vitamin and without hesitation make synthetic analogs thereof, can not control the dose.
appearance of hypervitaminosis Severely adversely affects the health of individuals suffering from a predisposition to kidney stone formation, as excessive levels of vitamin C in the body triggers the accumulation and deposition of oxalate in the renal parenchyma and gall bladder.In addition, symptoms of hypervitaminosis With the adult category of patients is a progressive loss of vision, insomnia, dysmenorrhea, hormonal disorders.
Hypervitaminosis B vitamins often has combined nature, and therefore to all its types characterized by the appearance of typical clinical symptoms of generalized redness and hypersensitive skin, headaches of varying intensity does nothaving a limited location, the appearance of disorders of sleep a night, increased convulsive readiness.
Hypervitaminosis of vitamin B12 is most often observed in elderly patients who take oral or parenteral dosage form it for the treatment of pernicious anemia.
signs of an overdose of these drugs are allergic reactions of varying severity from urticaria to anaphylactic shock, the effects of congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema.
Hypervitaminosis of vitamin B6 is rare, since its development dose should exceed more than 1000 times.The main feature of an excess of vitamin B6 in the body is the appearance of symptoms of progressive polyneuropathy (paresthesia and aching pain in the course of the neurovascular bundle in the lower and upper limbs, disorders of all kinds of sensitivity).Leveling these symptoms after discontinuation of the drug preparation is only for two months.
Hypervitaminosis B2 group is most often seen in the signs of liver dysfunction, photophobia, Zayed in the corners of the mouth and cardiomyopathies.
specific symptoms of hypervitaminosis B9 considered tonic cramps in the calf muscles that occur at any time of the day without the existing organic pathology.
Hypervitaminosis PP group vitamins are usually characterized by an acute course and a rapid increase in the intensity of the clinical symptoms.The patient in this situation complained of acute-onset nausea and diarrhea that is not related to food intake.Visual inspection of the patient noted a pronounced redness of the skin diffuse nature, the occurrence of which is due to the sharp expansion of the subcutaneous capillary arterial network.
target organs that are affected in 90% of cases with existing hypervitaminosis RR, considered the small intestine, and therefore, patients with excess vitamins in this group likely to develop signs of dysbiosis with severe.
at the children's category of patients hypervitaminosis of any type are typically more severe in comparison to adults, since children are not perfect hormonal and enzymatic reactions, as well as intoxication syndrome exacerbates the underlying disease.A feature of hypervitaminosis in children is that the agent provocateur of their occurrence can become not only the use of synthetic drugs containing one or another vitamin, but excessive consumption of foods high in its content.In this regard, special attention should be paid to balancing the power of the child and carefully introduce products as the first feeding.
Hypervitaminosis A group of children takes place in a very severe form, the clinical symptoms are a manifestation of the defeat of almost all organs and systems.An excess of vitamin A in the body of the child observed the following changes: a sharp throbbing headache in the temporal region, double objects before his eyes, a complete lack of appetite, dry mucous membranes of the nose, mouth and conjunctiva.Children suffering hypervitaminosis type A, characterized by increased irritability, tearfulness, sleepiness.Symptoms of congenital hypervitaminosis A, which is a consequence of the use of synthetic carotene mother during pregnancy may be severe congenital malformations of the heart, the facial region of the skull and the thymus gland.
Hypervitaminosis D in pediatric patients are often in a situation where healthy full-term baby with long-term use of prophylactic doses of therapeutic dose of vitamin D. saturating signs of intoxication in this case is the appearance of the child's sense of disgust for food, and persistent vomiting, frustration of a chair as a tendencyto diarrhea, constant feeling of thirst.In the case of ongoing intoxication in the child growing phenomenon general dehydration, resulting in significant weight loss observed, hypertension, retarded physical development arousal.Severe gipervitaminoza this type is accompanied by respiratory and hemodynamic disorders, disturbance of consciousness of varying depth, increased convulsive readiness, signs of acute renal failure.Laboratory confirmation of hypervitaminosis D is the urinary excretion of large amounts of calcium and phosphorus.
extremely grave impact on the health status of the child's use of large doses of vitamin K, since the body is massive destruction of red blood cells, which in the short term provokes death.
Excess in the body of B vitamins child often becomes the cause of allergic reactions of varying severity and duration.Note that the vitamins of this group are able to neutralize the antimicrobial action of anti-TB drugs, so synthetic analogs should be used with caution in patients suffering from some form of tuberculosis.
The initial phase of treatment of any type of hypervitaminosis is the elimination of its causes and the acceleration of the elimination of the drug.