May
11
23:01
Neuroscience

Arachnoiditis: causes, symptoms, treatment

Arachnoiditis: causes, symptoms, treatment

arachnoiditis Arachnoiditis - serous inflammation arachnoid brain and spinal cord.From - for lack of arachnoid own vascular system, the limited destruction does not happen, so the infection progresses with soft or hard shell

Etiology

Arachnoiditis occurs as a result of chronic intoxications (arsenic, lead, alcohol), carried chronic and acuteinfections, head - brain injury, with common infections ( flu , pneumonia, measles ), in inflammatory processes of the middle ear and paranasal sinuses.However, in many cases, the cause of arachnoiditis remains unclear

Pathogenesis

due to violation of lymph and blood circulation, cerebral edema, exposure to the pathogen and its toxins in the arachnoid (spinal / brain) develops reactive inflammation.Depending on the location and nature of the changes distinguish cystic, adhesive, cystic - adhesive, spinal, cerebral and cerebro-spinal arachnoiditis.By the nature of the disease can be chronic, acute (infrequently)

and subacute

clinical picture

cerebral arachnoiditis chronic or subacute observed average expressed cerebral disorders: dizziness, headache, crushing or Expander nature, nausea and vomiting (rarely).Headache is a constant symptom of arachnoiditis and is permanent, the period of intensifying under the influence of mental or physical stress, overheating, hypothermia and other causes.There fatigue, weakness, emotional lability.

in spinal arachnoiditis observed conductive disorders (impaired sensitivity and motion) and pain in the site of the lesion at the level of the nerve roots exit.In most cases, the process is localized at the level of the thoracic and lumbar segments of the spinal cord, as well as in the area of ​​the cauda equina.

spinal arachnoiditis is characterized by a combination of clinical symptoms, which are characteristic of cerebral and spinal arachnoiditis.

When convexital arachnoiditis often occur focal seizures, with the transition to a generalized loss of consciousness.There is focal or diffuse neurological symptoms.

When optohiazmalnom arachnoiditis observed quickly or slowly progressive upcoming one - bilateral decreased vision.In the fundus observed phenomena or stagnation of neuritis, optic atrophy, atrophy of the optic nerve.In some cases, may develop hypothalamic disorders (obesity, diabetes insipidus, etc.).

to arachnoiditis posterior fossa typically appear periodically reinforcing headaches accompanied by nausea and vomiting;in some cases, may develop hydrocephalus .Characteristically traced cerebellar disorders: nystagmus, incoordination, muscle hypotonia.There may be a spastic paresis of the opposite limb.As the disease symptoms may resemble a brain tumor.

the diagnosis is based on the data of complex neurological examination, which includes a study of the fundus, fields and visual acuity data craniography and findings of cerebrospinal fluid

Treatment

In acute course of disease shows the use of antibiotics: penicillin and semi-synthetic penicillins(ampioks, oxacillin, ampicillin, methicillin) in sredneterapevticheskih dosage.For the treatment of chronic, acute and sub-acute arachnoiditis applied symptomatic, dehydrating (glycerol, furosemide, diakarb), restorative (ATP, B vitamins) and absorbable (lidasa, vitreous plazmol, aloe extract) means.It is also possible to use iodine - electrophoresis on orbito - occipital technique.In the case of seizures associated appointed anticonvulsants.When cystic arachnoiditis may be indicated neurosurgical treatment.Surgical treatment to be inflammatory spinal cord compression and persistent radicular pain caused by arachnoiditis.

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