May
09
23:01
Neuroscience

Myasthenia gravis (myasthenia gravis)

Myasthenia gravis (myasthenia gravis)

myasthenia Myasthenia gravis (myasthenia gravis) - a chronic, progressive neuro - muscular disease characterized by muscle weakness and chronic fatigue.Currently, the disease is diagnosed in ten people per hundred thousand population.The cases of myasthenia gravis often fixed in age from 20 to 40 years, and is more common in women than men (ratio is approximately 2: 1)

Causes

Modern medicine can not give a definite answer about the cause of this disease.There are suggestions of its genetic origin, as were reported familial cases of myasthenia gravis, but definitely hereditary character of this disease is not proven.In patients with myasthenia often exhibit hyperplasia or a tumor of the thymus gland.Also a role in the development of myasthenia assigned mycoplasma and viruses.At the moment, there are two mechanisms of the disease:

- Autoimmune loss of the thymus gland, resulting in impaired nerve - muscle transmission.This significantly reduces the synthesis o

f acetylcholine and cholinesterase activity contrary increases

- Biochemical abnormalities in mionevralnyh synapses, which are caused by changes in hypothalamic function, followed by a secondary involvement in the process of the thymus (thymus)

triggering factor of myasthenia gravis can serve as a violation of the body's immune function, colds and stress, resulting in their own cells formed antibodies directed against acetylcholine receptors postsynaptic membrane of synapses (neuro - muscular soedineny)

flow and symptoms

In most cases, the disease starts with double vision and lower eyelids (in evening time).Then, after a long speech load (or evening) joins voice change.In the morning the patients are doing well, and already after morning toilet rolls very severe fatigue, as if they were working excessively;and warm feeling worsens, and improves contrast in the cold.After relaxing power restored as quickly as they disappear.Myasthenia gravis can occur undetected for years, but it is hidden progresses and eventually will have an effect;but it may come too late to be against it that - something, as the respiratory muscles are also working to acetylcholine, so may develop serious complications such as cardiac or respiratory failure, which can lead to death.

flow is myasthenia progressive nature with a gradual increase in symptoms.The severe form of the disease occur in patients with the so-called myasthenic crisis, characterized by sudden attacks of severe weakness of pharyngeal and respiratory muscles (respiratory failure, which is becoming frequent and wheezing), pulse quickens, there drooling.

particularly close attention to her children's needs myasthenia gravis.Parents in any case should not neglect the children complained that the child is unable to pedaling a bike or get on the bus, despite the fact that normally goes.These children are very often due to adults in charge of their laziness, close and stop complaining as long as movement disorders become very apparent.Inattention and lack of understanding of children by their parents can be truly deadly as a sharp increase in respiratory failure in children occurs rapidly.

diagnosis of myasthenia gravis in its early stages of development quite difficult, so at the first suspicion of the presence of this disease should consult a qualified neurologist and, if necessary, subsequent hospitalization in a specialized clinic

Treatment

main drugs in infantsanticholinesterase drugs are: Neostigmine and kalimin.From the designated dosage not in any case be rejected, as in the case of an overdose is likely cholinergic intoxication (constriction of the pupils, slow pulse, twitching, convulsions, cramps and abdominal pain, excessive salivation).In this case, the introduction of an emergency (droplets or intravenously) atropine.

treatment of myasthenia anticholinesterase drugs held for years by adjusting the drugs themselves, depending on the current severity of the disease: galantamine, Neostigmine, kalimin, oksazil.In order to strengthen their action used potassium salts.In severe disease used cytostatics and hormone therapy.

special diet is not required to comply, but are recommended to eat potassium rich foods: potatoes, dried apricots, raisins and so forth.

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