May
06
23:00
Neuroscience

Horner's syndrome

Horner Syndrome

Horner Horner's syndrome - a pathological disorder of the autonomic nervous system caused by a violation of the sympathetic innervation.In most cases, the clinical sign associated with certain diseases, but the syndrome Horner suschestvuet passing idiopathic form, which is not connected not with any known pathology, and clinical features of this form of regress on their own without taking any - any treatment

causes of Horner's syndrome

Syndrome Horner develops as a result of various pathological processes, the development of which affects the resulting sympathetic way at the level of the cervical spinal cord, brain stem and hypothalamus:

  • Tumors of spinal cord and brain
  • Injuries spinal cord and brain
  • Inflammatory processes of the central nervousSystem
  • Inflammatory diseases First ribs
  • Inflammation of the upper spine
  • bleeding in the brain (stroke)
  • Various intoxication (usually alcoholic)
  • Disseminated Sclerosis
  • Myasthenia
  • Migraine
  • Trigeminal neuralgia
  • OtitisDepartment ear
  • tumor Pancoast (located in the tops of the lungs)
  • Aortic Aneurysm
  • Neurofibromatosis (type 1)
  • Syringomyelia
  • cavernous sinus thrombosis
  • increase in size (hyperplasia) of the thyroid gland with goiter
  • Simatektomiya

Symptoms and signs of Horner's syndrome

There are some very specific signs that indicate the development of the patient syndrome Horner.Having all of the following symptoms does not necessarily, but at least two of them must be present, is:

  • Pupillary (Miosis)
  • Omission of the upper eyelid, resulting in a narrowing of the optic fissure (ptosis)
  • Elevated lower eyelid (Inverted ptosis)
  • delay pupil dilation - the pupil in bright light is narrowed, and low light on the contrary - extended.In the presence of the disease process slowed down the process of enlargement of the pupil during the transition to a dark room
  • retraction of the eyeball (enophthalmos)
  • Different color of the iris of the eyes (heterochromia).In congenital Horner syndrome can occur at different eyes different color irises
  • uneven coloration of the iris, in which the color pigment on the iris distributed unevenly
  • in the affected eye there is decreased production of tear fluid
  • on the affected side of the face decreased sweating (anhidrosis)
  • Polovinaface on the affected side giperemirovana
  • on the affected side shell of the eyeball (conjunctivitis) is more brightly colored

addition to Horner's syndrome is typical of so-called syndrome Petit - this abundance on the eyeball dilated blood vessels, which is detected during ophthalmologic examination Horner

Diagnosis of Horner's syndrome

to determine the presence and severity of Horner's syndrome, the following tests:

  • test with a drop of cocaine.When backfilling special eye drops cocaine blocks the reuptake of norepinephrine, so that there is mydriasis.In the presence of Horner's syndrome, because - due to lack of norepinephrine in the synaptic cleft, the pupil dilates not
  • Test paredrinom (oksamfetaminom).This test helps in determining the cause miosis
  • test determines the delay mydriasis
  • X-rays, computed tomography, magnetic - resonance imaging.These studies are used to detect various pathological entities that can trigger the development of Horner's syndrome

Treatment

Horner's syndrome Horner's syndrome Treatment is aimed at nerve and muscle stimulation (necessary to "force" the nerves and muscles work).For this purpose, combined with kinesiotherapy mioi NERVE STIMULATION.Methods mioi neurostimulation is based on the impact on the affected nerve or muscle current pulses.With this stimulation involves everything excitable structure (smooth and / or cross - striated muscle cells of the optic apparatus, nerves).Mioi neurostimulation allows sufficiently developed to prepare for the future regular loads, even lazy, very weak muscles.This procedure is performed using skin electrodes must under medical supervision and is quite painful, but eventually significantly improves blood circulation and lymph flow, metabolism is activated, and the muscles return to a state tone, adequate for further work.However, after

get better in any case it is impossible to stop.It is necessary to continue to engage the muscles independently.This will help physiokinesis.This therapy includes a specially designed set of dynamic physiotherapy: breathing exercises, sports - applied games, training on simulators, various outdoor games.

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