ADHD - a syndrome in which pronounced attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and it manifests itself as a neurological and behavioral disorder in children's development of the child.
main distinguishing features of this syndrome on the basis of which are diagnosed, are the following symptoms: difficulty concentrating, hyperactivity (increased activity), as well as unyielding management of impulsivity
exact cause of ADHDnever identified.But can affect the following factors: environmental degradation;infectious diseases carried over the mother of the future;effects of alcohol, drugs, drugs, smoking during this period;the threat of termination, the incompatibility of Rh factor, chronic diseases of the mother;Premature, rapid or prolonged labor;poisoning anesthesia, cesarean section, the internal cerebral hemorrhage, birth complications, induction of labor.Dangerous diseases of infants with raising the heat.Asthma, heart failure, pneumonia, kidney disease, diabetes ca
have predominated in the disease syndrome genetic factors.
The complex often are related disorder - a bipolar disorder, Tourette's syndrome, dyslexia, Asperger's syndrome.
ADHD and its treatment and correction at the time caused a lot of controversy.The real existence of ADHD continues to question a number of doctors, psychologists, teachers, parents and a community.Some believe that the diagnosis of ADHD does not exist, while others tend to believe in the existence of genetic and physiological causes impulsive hyperactive condition in young children.
American psychotherapists consider ADHD a neurological point of view, as a persistent and chronic condition for which there is a cure.This disorder, according to America, affecting up to 5% of the child population, as well as an adult.
According to current Russian diagnostic criteria for ADHD in children reveal at the end of pre-school, and in the later stages at the end of school age.For a definitive diagnosis requires an assessment of the behavior of two social environments (home and school).These disorders in learning and social behavior provide a basis for the diagnosis of ADHD.The objectivity of the diagnosis of ADHD in children and the real reason for the purposes of treatment Medications remains open and controversial, as there is no uniform diagnostic criteria and methods to evaluate symptoms.
ADHD is more common in boys.Frequency Distribution of boys to girls from 3: 1 but sometimes 9: 1
Currently establish the diagnosis of ADHD based on the phenomenological psychological characteristics.Signs of ADHD tend to emerge only after time and repeated periodically.
parallel with attention disorders one of the main signs of ADHD are impulsive acts, which manifests itself in the inability to keep control over their behavior under certain requirements on the part of adults.These children are characterized by quick reaction to the situation, without waiting for precise directions and instructions adequately assess the requirements for the job.And as a result distraction, inattention, carelessness, complacency.Such children can not prevent the negative and destructive, dangerous consequences caused by their actions.Often kids are putting themselves at risk, manifesting courage and unnecessary fad front of their peers.As a result, accidents happen.Children with ADHD are able to easily, without thinking to cause material damage to the property.The difficulty in diagnosing ADHD is manifested in the fact that the syndrome is accompanied by another disorder - is Tourette's syndrome
to establish a diagnosis of ADHD must have had investigated six, as well as more of the following symptoms in the "Inattention" on "Hyperactivity"as well as the presence of one trait" impulsiveness ".These signs should be observed in the child within six months.
proposed signs to "Inattention" :
- unable to keep the long time attention to detail, through negligence and carelessness makes mistakes when performing tasks
- difficulty focusing when performing tasks, as well as during games
- you thinkthat the child can not hear speech addressed to him
- child often fail to comply with the proposed regulations and to cope with the lessons on the curriculum without external reasons on that
- their own child is not able to perform the task, or to proceed with the other activities
- If possible, avoid tasks that require mental concentration (school homework)
- child loses school supplies (pens, pencils, notebooks, rulers, erasers)
- the child is easily distracted by extraneous things
- show constant forgetfulness
proposed signs to "Hyperactivity" :
- the child often present troubled spontaneous movement in hands and feet
- sitting on a chair child is constantly spinning, mobile, gets up from his seat during class whenrequired to sit
- shows aimless activity in the movement: turns, jumps runs, somewhere climbs
- can play safely and quietly do something
- is in constant motion, as if a "little motor"
- overly chatty
offered signs of "impulsivity" :
- child responds without hesitation, and without listening to the end of
- no patience to wait for anything
- prevents others talk, interrupting the conversation
In adults, whenAvailable undetected problems in childhood, ADHD symptoms persist throughout life.Statistically such people from 30% or more.In the presence of ADHD in adults observed difficulties with attention to the study of new material in interpersonal relationships.The high prevalence of ADHD is common among the unemployed, not married men.And in general, the development of ADHD depends on psychological problems and psychiatric diseases
views of experts from various countries differ in the methods of treatment and correction of ADHD.But all are unanimous in considering effective integrated approach.An integrated approach combines several methods.This includes behavior modification, psychotherapy, educational and neuropsychological correction.
Drug therapy is recommended for individual reasons and only when the problems with ADHD is not really overcome with the help of non-drug methods.Assign doctors atomoxetine, which is not a stimulant and not a derivative of amphetamine.Using drugs is not a fixed gain of ADHD symptoms or other adverse events that occur due to the cancellation.
Since 2010 published Australian study on the impact and negative indications ADHD stimulants.Prolonged study of sick lasted 20 years.
effective in treating ADHD nootropic drugs that improve brain function, metabolism and energy, and increase the tone of the bark.Thus in the treatment of ADHD nootropics activate the higher mental functions.At the same time, doctors prescribe drugs, consisting of amino acids to improve the metabolism of the brain, as well as antidepressants
Treatment of ADHD
Drug-free treatment involves neuropsychological method, exercises, through which the patient "transferred" in early childhood and restore neuronal connections.Correction of neuropsychological procedure lasts nine months.Consequently, after treatment of the patient's brain function more effectively recover all the functions.
syndromic approach takes into account the freedom of action, the sick desire when choosing a job.The method takes into account that the child assiduous when it interesting.
substantively designed outdoor games, where winning games a child with ADHD receives due to impulsiveness.But at a certain point, he still has to strain his attention.
behavioral therapy (behavioral) includes teaching tactics: approach the promotion and punishment.It is recommended to encourage the child, to give a definite positive attitude.
method of family therapy where the child receives the first communication skills
potent drugs that are prescribed to patients do not always have a positive effect.There are cases that after taking the drug in children symptoms of unwarranted aggression.Seizures of unwarranted aggression expressed in outbursts of anger directed at the crowd of their peers, adults, families with firearms, poisoning and other means for children.And despite this, there is controversy surrounding ADHD dubious about the existence of mental disorder.