Diphtheria - worse the infection mainly affects children and is characterized by inflammation often oro / nasopharynx, the phenomena of intoxication, as well as the defeat of the excretory, nervous and cardio - vascular systems.
in unvaccinated people for this disease is especially severe.In the postwar years it has been widely used in DTP vaccine, so in most countries almost completely disappeared diphtheria cases.Despite this, in the early nineties, in Russia, due to insufficient coverage of adults and children, there was a diphtheria epidemic that claimed thousands of lives, but it could be prevented by timely vaccination
Causes of diphtheria
diphtheria is caused by bacteria,also known as diphtheria toxin.The source of infection appears sick person.In most cases, the disease is transmitted by airborne - droplets from the healthy bacteria carriers, either directly from sick with diphtheria.In very rare cases, the infection occurs through infected subjects.The probability of
symptoms and for diphtheria
Usually in the early stages of the disease there is a slight discharge from the lesion and low temperatures.The most dangerous form of the disease is diphtheria of the pharynx, which is accompanied by the formation of grayish fibrinous films on the surface of the mucosa.If these films are beginning to grow in size, there may be difficulty in breathing.After seven days or more from the beginning of the disease, it becomes noticeable effect of the toxin on the bodies more distant from the site of infection.In infants, diphtheria primarily affects the nasal cavity, and the older children often fall ill with diphtheria throat.
Bluetongue diphtheria throat is often not always quickly recognized, asgeneral condition of the patients remains practically unchanged.It is noted subfebrile body temperature, mild weakness, observed pain on swallowing.Swollen lymph nodes and swelling of the tonsils are very low.This could end up as a form of recovery and move into a more typical form of the disease.
Ostrovchaty kind of diphtheria throat just as fever is characterized by a small and rather mild.In the tonsils may experience multiple or single sites fibrinous films.Also there is a moderate increase in the lymph nodes.
membranous diphtheria throat begins quite sharply with a significant increase in body temperature and more pronounced symptoms of intoxication.Tonsils swollen expressed on the surface there are dense solid whitish film (fibrinous deposit), which are removed with great difficulty, then this place are bleeding erosion.There has been a significant increase in regional lymph nodes, which is slightly painful on palpation.
Without appropriate specific therapy, the process is prone to progression and transition to more severe forms: toxic and distribution.This nalet extends beyond the tonsil on the tongue, bow, rear and side walls of the pharynx.
Severe toxic diphtheria throat begin very rapidly with increasing total body temperature to 39 - 40 * C and pronounced symptoms of intoxication of the organism.There is a swelling of the neck submandibular glands with subcutaneous tissue edema.In terms of distribution, toxic diphtheria is divided into three degrees: 1 degree - swelling comes to the middle of the neck;2 degree - swelling comes to the clavicle;3 degree - the swelling goes down below the collarbone.In some cases, the swelling can spread to the face.Other characteristic features include lowering blood pressure, tachycardia, blue lips and pale skin.
In cases of severe laryngeal lesions observed difficulty breathing, appears barking cough, the voice becomes hoarse.
With the defeat of the nasal mucosa observed sukrovichnye selection.
When diphtheria eyes observed swelling eyelids, difficult to separate yellow - gray raids copious discharge of pus on the conjunctiva century.
Complications that may result from diphtheria: central nervous system (often paralysis of the respiratory muscles, neck muscles, vocal cords, the limbs and the soft palate), myocarditis.As a result of respiratory paralysis can occur death.
to confirm a definitive diagnosis, the patient must be identified toxigenic diphtheria bacillus.In addition, the need to conduct a differential diagnosis of SARS, cereals, infectious mononucleosis and tonsillitis different etiology
Treatment of diphtheria
People with the slightest suspicion of diphtheria infection are subject to immediate admission to hospital infection.The main method of treatment of this particular disease is an immediate fractional administering antitoxic diphtheria serum.However, before the introduction of the serum to the patient is necessary to stage skin tests for sensitivity.At the same time as the introduction of diphtheria serum is shown holding a detoxification therapy and receiving antibiotics.Particular attention is paid to fluid intake, nutrition and prevention of hypoxia.To destroy bacteria patient prescribe antibiotics (chloramphenicol, doxycycline, erythromycin, cephalexin, ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin), and further to prevent diphtheria in the future, make the vaccine.
basis diphtheria is immunization with DTP (adsorbed pertussis - tetanus vaccine).