Brucellosis - an acute infectious disease caused by bacteria of the genus Brucella and is characterized by lesions of the heart, nervous system, reproductive system and bone - joint system.Brucella are widespread in the environment, rather tolerate low temperatures, including freezing.In water, the bacteria for up to five months in the soil about three and a months, feta cheese - about sixty days, in cow's milk - forty-five days.When boiling milk pasteurization and Brucella are killed.They are also just a few minutes kill various disinfectants
Modes of transmission of brucellosis
source of human infection are domestic animals (pigs, goats, cows, sheep, rare dog), the animal is often a stillbirth and abortion.The environment Brucella stand with detachable womb (abortion), urine and milk of infected animals.Also, agents of brucellosis are slaughtered meat of sick animals.
main route by which Brucella enter the body are the mucous membranes of the respiratory and digestive tra
After the introduction of the human body, brucella of lymphatic entered into the regional lymph nodes and then into the bloodstream.With bloodstream pathogen into the organs of the reticuloendothelial system (bone marrow, spleen, liver, lymph nodes), where new pockets of infection and a re-release of the pathogen in the blood, resulting in systemic toxicity develops an infectious syndrome.Once again this pathogen spreads to the blood in different systems and organs (the central nervous system, reproductive system, musculoskeletal - musculoskeletal system, liver).
Quite often the disease takes a chronic course with periods of exacerbation and remission.Chronic brucellosis in humans is often accompanied by immunopathological manifestations, thus provoking the emergence of many diseases
Symptoms of brucellosis and for
incubation period of the disease can last from six to thirty days (usually one to three weeks).For brucellosis is characterized by the variety of clinical symptoms and varying degrees of severity.
In mild form, the disease begins gradually, there is irritability, insomnia, and there is a general malaise;concerned about pain in the joints, muscles, headaches;Body temperature rises slightly (37 - 37.3 C).
For ostroseptichesoy form is characterized by high fever (39 - 40 ° C), which does not affect the well-being of the patient (the patient can watch TV, read, play chess and so forth.).This form of brucellosis does not threaten the patient's life, and even in the absence of specific treatment ends with a full recovery.
The chronic form is characterized by symptoms of intoxication (decreased performance, headache, weakness, mild fever, irritability, disturbance of appetite, poor sleep).Almost all patients with an increase in regional lymph nodes, often reveals an enlarged spleen and liver, there is a loss of sexual, nervous and joint systems.Much less could experience eye damage, pneumonia and myocarditis.The defeat of the musculoskeletal - musculoskeletal system - the most common manifestation of chronic brucellosis.Patients complain of joint and muscle pain.Predominantly affects large joints: the hip, shoulder, elbow and knee.Joint mobility is limited, they swell.Sometimes there is a defeat of the spine (usually in the lumbar).The lesions of the nervous system often appear sciatica, neuritis and polyneuritis.Such CNS like meningoencephalitis, meningitis, encephalitis and myelitis, are very rare, but occur very hard and long.Changes in the reproductive system: women appear in endometritis and salpingitis, and men - in sexual function decline, orchitis and epididymitis.Can develop infertility, amenorrhea often occurs.Pregnant women often occur premature births, abortions, stillbirths, children often present congenital brucellosis.Changes in the eye manifest atrophy of the optic nerve, keratitis, iritis, uveitis, etc.
diagnosis of brucellosis
diagnosis of brucellosis set, taking into account the data of laboratory studies, epidemiological history and the presence of specific symptoms of this disease.The diagnosis is confirmed by serological and bacteriological methods.Laboratory confirmation of brucellosis significantly limited by the fact that the allocation of Brucella can be carried out only in specially designed for the detection of dangerous pathogens laboratories.Also taken into account in studies that graft (compulsorily vaccinated people, because of their professional activities close contact with animals) against brucellosis people sufficiently long period of time may show a positive reaction from allergy tests, and serological tests.Wright's reaction (agglutination) is the most informative of the serological tests.The differential diagnosis is carried out with rheumatoid arthritis, tularemia, rheumatism, tuberculosis, sepsis, typhoid fever, Q fever and malaria
Treatment of brucellosis
When latent forms of the disease is assigned to restorative treatment, it recommended a certain mode of work and rest.Conducting health - spa treatment is possible only after six months since the disappearance of the clinical symptoms of brucellosis.Patients with a mild form of insulation is not needed.
When ostrosepticheskoy form, causal treatment is a priority.Displaying antibiotics tetracycline group (0.3 - 0.4 g. Every six hours for seven - ten days) or chloramphenicol (0.5 g. Every six hours for ten - twelve days).If necessary, you can repeat courses of antibiotic therapy.After the suppression of acute manifestations of tumor vaccination is carried out.In chronic forms of restorative therapeutic measures are carried out in combination with vaccine therapy.As a supplement to the basic treatment, physical therapy is widely used.
Weather favorable for life, but in some cases, the disease can lead to partial disability.
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