Microsporia - fungal infection of hair and skin caused by fungi of the genus mikrosporum.In exceptional cases, there may be a loss of nail plates.From - the characteristics of symptoms, the disease is also known as "ringworm."
Once on the human skin, the fungus is introduced into them and begins to multiply.If spore germination occurs near the hair follicles, the hair is affected.Fairly quickly spreading across the surface of the hair, the fungus leads to the destruction of the cuticle scales between which there is an accumulation of spores.Thus, the fungus as it surrounds the hair follicle and dense filling forming a cover.
After the fungus feet, microsporia is the most common fungal infection found everywhere.Most often suffer from microsporia children;adults get sick very often, and mainly young women.Microsporia adults (especially affecting the scalp) is rarely observed due to the fact that the hair of adults present organic acid slows the growth of fungus.That is why, if th
The main source of this disease are kittens / cats, much less a dog.Directly microsporia infection occurs during close contact with sick animals or with objects that have been infected with scales or fur.Once in the soil with the affected hair spores, the fungus is able to maintain its viability for one - three months.It follows that the soil is exceptionally factor of transmission, but it does not its natural source
animals manifestations microsporia expressed areas of baldness on the outer surfaces of the ears, muzzle, front (rarely the hind) feet.Very often even look completely healthy cats are carriers of the fungus.
rise microsporia disease usually occurs at the end of the summer, with a peak in October - November, and a gradual reduction to a minimum in March - April.Seasonal fluctuations are directly related to the incidence of months priploda in cats, as well as more frequent contacts of children with animals in the summer - autumn period.
zoonotic microsporia The incubation period is usually between five and seven days.The nature of the manifestations of this disease is caused by the depth of penetration of the pathogen and the location of lesions
Microsporia smooth skin
directly at the site of the introduction of the fungus formed towering slightly swollen red spot, having clear boundaries, which gradually begins to increase in diameter.On the edge of the formation of a continuous roll forming towering, representing a small crusts, vesicles and nodules.At the center of the spot takes the resolution of the inflammatory process, resulting in this area becomes pale - pink color with pityriasis superficial peeling.Hearth takes the form of a ring.When the number of microspores smooth skin lesions usually ranges from one to three, with a diameter of 0.5 to 3 centimeters.Most often, the centers are located on the skin of the face, neck, shoulders and forearms.Subjective feelings or completely absent, or may disturb mild itching.Young women, young children and infants often there is a marked inflammatory manifestations and minimum peeling.
in people prone to allergic reactions (especially in patients with atopic dermatitis) often masquerades as a manifestation of the fungus of the main process of - which is why it is not always possible to diagnose.Application of local hormones can only exacerbate the spread of fungal infections.
Microsporia nail plates, leather soles and palms is rather rare kind of disease.With the defeat of nails isolated lesion is usually marked the outer edge of the nail.Initially formed a dim spot, which soon becomes white coloring.In the area of white spots, the nail becomes brittle and soft, and can then collapse completely
scalp affects mainly children from five to twelve years, and it was observed that children with red hair color, microsporia scalp almost never occurs.
In most cases, the centers microsporia scalp are observed in the temporal and parietal areas, as well as on top.In most cases there is one - two oval or round the hearth with clear boundaries, the size of two to five centimeters.At the edge of the major foci often seen smaller pockets of five to fifteen millimeters.At the site of infection at the beginning of the disease is formed peeling section.During the first days of the mushroom is only the mouth of the hair follicle, and upon closer inspection, you will notice the presence of a ring-shaped, whitish scales, which surrounds the hair like a cuff.As the further course of the disease, the sixth - seventh day microsporia apply directly at the hair itself, leading to the fact that they become brittle and break off at four - six millimeters above the level of the surrounding skin (from here came the name "ringworm" t.K. cropped hair seems).The remains of the hair look dull and covered with a kind of greyish - white cover, which is a fungus spores.In the lesion skin usually swollen and slightly reddened, and its surface is covered with small whitish - gray scales.
When suppurative form microsporia scalp, against the backdrop of a pronounced inflammatory process, forming bluish - red soft reins, the surface of which is covered with small pustules (by mechanical action on them through the holes pus).Suppurative form microsporia formed as a result of irrational therapy, late visit to a doctor and in the presence of serious comorbidities
diagnosis microsporia established on the basis of culture, microscopy and luminescence studies
cultures are conducted to identifyfungus - parasite.Through this method can not determine the type and kind of pathogen, and therefore conduct adequate therapeutic treatment and prevention of disease.Starting material (hair, flakes) were placed in a special medium.Growth of colonies main pathogen microsporia (mikrosporum) is usually celebrated on the third day after seeding
Microscopic examination is the microscopic examination of a piece of hair at mikrosporii scalp and flakes from the centers at mikrosporii smooth skin
luminescence studies based on the identification of athair under Wood's lamp is bright - green glow, which manifests itself in lesions of fungi of the genus mikrosporum.The reason for this phenomenon to date has not been established.Research is conducted in a darkened room, pre-clearing the lesions of ointments, cakes and so on. The luminescent method is used to assess the results of therapy, identifying the affected hair, determining the causative agent, carrier or determining the presence of infection in animals;to oversee the people in contact with sick
to treat microsporia smooth skin lesion in the absence of hair, shows the use of external antifungal drugs.On the morning of the lesions cause 2-5% solution of iodine in the evening they smeared antifungal ointment (10% of the sulfur-tar ointment, 10-20% sulfuric ointment, 3% salicylic 10% sulfuric ointment).In addition, two times a day is necessary to apply an ointment such as bifonazole, ciclopirox, isoconazole, clotrimazole, etc. Well enough drug showed Lamisil (terbinafine), available as a 1% cream and spray.In the case of pronounced inflammation, it is advisable to use a combination of drugs, containing hormones (ointments and travokort mikozolon).
If additional bacterial infection shown triderm applying cream.Preparations containing dimexide (10% solution hinozola), used for deep forms microsporia.The solution is applied twice a day until complete disappearance of fungi.
With the defeat of the long and vellus hair held systemic antifungal therapy.For the treatment of scalp microsporia used antibiotic griseofulvin (produced by fungi).Griseofulvin must take daily three - four times during the meal together with incomplete teaspoon of vegetable oil (oil must be added in order to increase the duration of action and increase the solubility of the drug).Children under three years shows the assignment grizofulvina in suspension.Treatment is carried out continuously until a first negative test result mushrooms, then the drug for two weeks to take the same dose, but in a day;then another two weeks twice weekly.The duration of treatment with griseofulvin ranges from a half to two months.By griseofulvin side effects include headache, discomfort in the area of the pancreas, and allergic rashes.Because of the toxic effects on the liver, the drug is contraindicated in children suffering from diseases of the liver and hepatitis have suffered.Furthermore, griseofulvin is not prescribed for peptic ulcer disease, kidney disease, blood diseases, photodermatosis and neuritis.
good alternative to griseofulvin is the drug Lamisil (terbinafine).For the treatment of microsporia scalp is shown receiving terbinafine tablet (manufactured dosage of 125 and 250 mg).The drug is taken once a day, its portability, as compared to analogue, it is very good, but sometimes patients may disturb the minor pain in the abdomen and a feeling of fullness.In the course of treatment is shown weekly shaving and hair shampoo twice a week.At the same time massaging it recommended to focus any antifungal ointment.
Prevention microsporia includes timely detection, isolation and treatment of patients with adequate microsporia.It is mandatory to carry out periodic medical examinations in children's institutions.After identifying the patient microsporia child's urgent need to be isolated from other children, and then send for treatment in a specialized hospital.Without exception, all the things that belong to the patient microsporia, must be subjected to mandatory disinfection.Also, without fail, all the people in contact with patients and relatives should be screened.Particular attention is given to pets as they are often the source of infection.
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