Lyme disease - an infectious disease with a chronic or acute course, caused by the spirochete transmitted by ticks and manifested defeat heart, joints, nervous system and skin.Lyme disease can develop at any age, absolutely, but it usually occurs in adults between twenty-five to forty-five years old and children up to fifteen years.
the first time the disease has been described in the American town of Lyme, when the entire group of patients had been diagnosed with arthritis, characterized by an unusual course.Human infection with Lyme disease is due to the bite of an infected tick.From the saliva of the tick pathogens get into the skin, where for a few days rather quickly multiply and then begin to spread to the internal organs (joints, brain, heart), and other areas of the skin.For a long time (perhaps years) activators are stored in the human body, thereby causing recurrent and / or chronic diseases.After a few years of infection may develop a chronic form of the disease.
to practical reason only carry Lyme disease tick bite, transporter spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi.A person with Lyme disease is not contagious.The immune protection after undergoing Lyme disease quite unstable, so in a few years there may be a re-infection.The main risk factor for the disease is a stay from May to September in the main habitat of ticks - mixed forest
Lyme disease - symptoms and effects
The incubation period of the disease lasts from two to thirty days (an average of fourteen days), after whichtick bite site on the skin a slight reddening of the skin occurs, which gradually increase along the periphery, reaching in its diameter from one to ten centimeters (sometimes up to sixty or more centimeters).The shape of the spot is usually round or oval, rarely irregular shape.The outer edge of the inflamed skin slightly rising above the level of the skin.After a certain period of time the central part of the lesion becomes pale or bluish tinge, this creates a ring shape.Directly in the center of the spot - site of the tick bite, there is a crust, then passing into the rumen.Without the treatment, the stain persists for two to three weeks, and then disappears.
whole period of the disease can be divided into stages:
I Stage or local infection develops in about 50% of people infected during the first month after a tick bite.For this stage is characterized by flu-like during a febrile phenomena, general malaise, weakness, severe chills, pain in joints and muscles, and headaches.The body temperature often reaches 40 ° C, the fever can last up to two weeks.In some cases, there is nausea, vomiting, sore throat, runny nose and dry cough.The main specific for Lyme disease is a ring-shaped sign of migrating redness.Every fifth patient was ring-marked redness is the only manifestation of stage I disease.Initially, the site of the tick bite site develops uniform redness, which for several days, growing in all directions to centimeters or tens of centimeters in diameter.The outer edge of the spot slightly raised above the rest of the skin turns bright red and clear.Some patients in the spot can be mild soreness and slight itching.In the case of non-treatment redness may persist for up to two months and during treatment with antibiotics is held for several days.
II Stage .This stage develops in the absence of adequate treatment in about 15% of patients within a few weeks / months, and is expressed in the defeat of the cardiovascular system (heart palpitations, pain in the heart), nervous system and skin (hives, the ring members).In addition to Phase II is characterized by: bronchitis, kidney disease and liver, eye disease, angina.
III Stage .After closure of the first two phases described above, after one to three months, formed Stage III disease in which the disease is relapsing becomes long duration.For this stage, characterized by the following symptoms: lesions of internal organs and systems, sleep disorders, depression or irritability, headache, fatigue, weakness.
Lyme disease characterized by the classic triad: cranial neuropathy + Bell's palsy, peripheral radiculoneuritis meningitis.It is much less common cerebellar ataxia, chorea, Julian-Barre syndrome, demyelinating encephalopathy and false brain tumor.In the cerebrospinal fluid at a moderately elevated level of protein and normal glucose levels may be a mononuclear pleocytosis.By the neurological symptoms of Lyme disease include lymphocytic meningoradiculitis and tick meningopolinevrit.
initial change of heart when Lyme disease detected in the area of the fifth week of the onset of the disease and show various degrees of atrioventricular block, dysfunction of the left ventricle and myopericarditis.Changes in the heart usually last from three days to six weeks, and often recurrent.
When Lyme disease changes in the joints appear in a period of seven days to two years.Originally appearing migratory arthralgia, and after a few months in the pathological process involved both small and large joints (usually the knee).A continuous flow of arthritis ranges from weeks to months, with the probability of recurrence for several years.Approximately every tenth patient arthritis of large joints becomes chronic phase, leading to erosive changes of bone and cartilage.
Chronic Lyme disease is characterized by alternating relapse and remission, and sometimes assumes the character of a continuous recurrence.Chronic inflammation has such typical changes as thinning and subsequent loss of cartilage, osteoporosis, very rarely - degenerative changes.
Early diagnosis of Lyme disease based on data from clinical and epidemiologic studies.If the patient as a result of visual inspection was identified typical annular erythema, even in the absence of data on the tick bite and availability of laboratory investigations, diagnosis - Lyme disease is recorded.To confirm the diagnosis shows Serosurveys
Lyme Disease - Treatment
treatment of Lyme disease must necessarily take place within the walls of the Infectious Diseases Hospital, as the only way to get a quality qualified treatment aimed at the destruction of Borrelia.In the absence of any reason qualified treatment, the disease is compulsorily starts to progress, moving into a chronic, sometimes resulting in disability.In exceptional cases, patients with mild disease can be treated at home.
Sick are under constant medical observation during the first two years are subject to mandatory inspection at three, six, twelve months, and two years later
Treatment of Stage I of Lyme disease .For two or three weeks of antibiotic therapy is performed the following medications:
- Amoxicillin 3 p.per day.500 mg (children from 25 to 100 mg per kg per day.)
- 2 Doxycycline p.per day.100 mg
- Ceftriaxone (antibiotic reserve) 2 p.per day.2.0 g intramuscularly
Against the background of antibacterial therapy often develop Jarisch-Herkskhaymera (intoxication due to the mass death of Borrelia fever).In this case, briefly antibiotics cancel, and then resumed at a lower dose
Treatment of Stage II of Lyme disease .For three or four weeks of antibiotic therapy is conducted.In the absence of changes in the cerebrospinal fluid shows amoxicillin 3 p.per day.orally or doxycycline 2 p.per day.100 mg.In the event of changes in the cerebrospinal fluid is prescribed ceftriaxone 1 p.per day.2 g;benzylpenicillin intravenously at 20-25 million units per day;cefotaxime every 8 hours. 2 c
Treatment of Stage III Lyme disease .Shown receiving the following drugs: doxycycline 2 p.per day.100 mg;amoxicillin 3 p.per day.500 mg orally (duration of 4 weeks).In the absence of a positive effect must take the following drugs: ceftriaxone 1 p.per day.2 g;cefotaxime every 8 hours. 2 c;benzylpenicillin intravenously over two to three weeks at 20-25 million units per day.
prevention of Lyme disease in the first place is to combat mites as indirect measures (protective capes, coats and so on.), And their direct destruction of nature.In the case of tick bite the next day, you must (a remote mite) is required to appear at the infectious diseases hospital, where the parasite examined for the presence of Borrelia
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