disease mumps (mumps) - infectious disease of viral nature, part of a group of childhood diseases with rubella, chicken pox, measles and characterized by lesions of salivary parotid glands.This damage leads to the fact that the patient's face swells considerably and begins to resemble a snout known to all of the animal, in whose honor and was named the disease in common - "pig."The most common pig sick children from the third to the seventh year of life, and mumps in boys occurs twice as often.In an earlier age pig disease is much easier than in the case of its development in adolescence or adulthood.Today, thanks to vaccination against mumps vaccinated vast majority of children, so that the disease is much rarer.For unvaccinated children's risk of contracting mumps is quite high.
causative agent of mumps is - mumps virus, which, together with the measles virus belongs to the same group of viruses.This virus is not subject to mutation, its instability is observed in the environme
Mumps disease - reasons
only source of pig - a man with a sick pig can be bothbright enough signs of disease and none at all.Sick pig child becomes contagious for a day or two before the first symptoms of the disease and during the first five days of the disease.The mode of transmission of the virus pigs always airborne, susceptibility to disease is very high.
Also, there are the following possible reasons for the increase of the parotid (and others) of the salivary glands:
• Metabolic disorders (diabetes, uremia)
• purulent bacterial mumps
• Viral mumps, HIV, mumps
• Syndrome Mikulic (painless chronicMumps + inflammation of the salivary glands)
• Benign and malignant tumors (tumors) of salivary glands
• Increase the parotid glands in connection with the reception of certain drugs (propylthiouracil, phenylbutazone, iodides, etc.)
entrance gate for pigs are the mucous membranesnasopharynx.Penetrating into the bloodstream, mumps virus affects the glandular tissue (submandibular, parotid gland and others).The incubation period of the virus ranges from eleven to twenty-one days
Mumps disease - symptoms and for
As with other infectious diseases, from mumps has an incubation period is usually about three weeks, but sometimes there are unusual cases of the disease, whenincubation period is reduced to one or two days.It must be remembered that all the time course of the incubation period, the patient is very dangerous to others.
a typical form of the disease Mumps is easily recognizable and pronounced the following symptoms:
• Increased body temperature.Usually right after the end of the incubation period of a sick child there is a significant rise in temperature to 39 ℃, 40 ℃ and up to the most severe cases
• Deterioration of the general state of health.When pigs, as with any other disease, the patient's condition deteriorates significantly a child, he begins to act up constantly, all the time excited, or the opposite - constantly asleep.This state of the child's parents without proper attention should not leave in any case
• Swelling of the glands.After raising the temperature, somewhere on the second day, the baby starts to complain about the appearance of pain in the neck and behind the ears dimples.In most pain appear first on one side, and then to move on to another.At the end of the day is usually one in the same sequence appear swollen glands, which is very painful on palpation and have a doughy consistency
in chewing, swallowing and sometimes by simply opening his mouth marked quite painful.The hallmark of mumps - swelling in the skin is shiny, smooth and reddened.
around for five days, the tumor tends to increase in size and as a result - one or swollen cheeks.Only then gradually swelling to subside and disappear completely earliest the tenth day of the disease.Around the same time, the general condition is normalized and the body temperature returns to normal.
As has been said above, mumps disease is dangerous, able to entail different consequences: affecting the gray matter of the brain and meninges inflammation, pathological lesion of the middle ear and the reproductive system (the boys).
Patients who have reached puberty, mumps often affect other cancer.One in five boys there orchitis (inflammation of the testes), which is characterized by one-sided defeat usually with pain, edema, hypersensitivity, fever and redness of the scrotum.Sometimes it can lead to atrophy of the testes, but typically reproductive capacity and production of testosterone remain.Oophoritis (inflammation of the ovaries) is manifested in girls less painful, much rarer and does not lead to such a terrible diagnosis of infertility.Inflammation of the brain (encephalitis) is a severe complication of mumps, but luckily is extremely rare.In some cases, it may develop inflammation of the inner ear (otitis media), which can leave behind a persistent deafness.Common complications after mumps is meningitis, which usually takes place quite easily.First of all, mumps meningitis may develop after the increase of the parotid glands.
Symptoms of mumps involving the potential complications of vomiting and pain in the stomach, rather severe headache, stiff (strained) neck, shortness of breath, dizziness, convulsions, drowsiness, increased painful testicles, which runs over four days, the fever
Mumps - vaccination
all kids aged twelve months shows a vaccination against rubella, measles and mumps.Against most mumps vaccine is not separate.In some cases, after about seven days of vaccination in children may cause mild rash that looks like measles symptoms.This is a normal reaction to get vaccinated, and a rash soon always go alone.
However, vaccination, there are certain contraindications.Immunized child is contraindicated in case of low immunity, for example, when such serious diseases as AIDS and leukemia, and in patients receiving depressing the immune response of drugs (immunosuppressants, steroids).In the case of the child of severe allergic reactions, vaccination should be carried out under mandatory supervision allergist
Mumps disease - diagnosis
mumps diagnosis is established primarily on the basis of specific symptoms.The patient complains of aggravated when talking and chewing, pain in the ear and dry mouth.Rises to 39 ℃ temperature of the body, there are characteristic symptoms of intoxication (violation of appetite and sleep, headache, chills, weakness).
In the salivary glands on the face appear characteristic swelling, which served as a popular name - pig.Usually swollen parotid glands on both sides, rarely with any one, and may be affected not only the parotid, but also the sublingual and / or submandibular gland.Pig disease lasts about seven - ten days and sometimes occurs in so-called "erased" form when the symptoms of mumps reduced to a slight swelling of the parotid gland, while the patient's overall health is not affected.
Recognition pigs in typical cases, no special difficulty is not.With other infectious diseases defeat parotid glands has the character of a purulent lesion is secondary.In the case of other diseases of the salivary glands (malignant tumors of the salivary glands duct stones, Mikulicz disease, recurrent allergic mumps) there is no long duration and fever.
Special laboratory tests for the diagnosis of mumps is not usually applied.Only in the disputed particularly difficult cases, using methods that are based on the allocation of blood mumps virus, swabs from the throat, cerebrospinal fluid, secretion of the parotid salivary gland and urine
Mumps disease - treatment
The most common treatment of pigs takes place at home.The infectious department of the child is hospitalized only in extreme cases.There is no specific treatment for mumps illness is not required.Displaying only the adoption of measures that are intended to ease the patient's general condition.Such measures include gargling and compresses and / or bandages on his throat.
for gargling should prepare a warm soda solution (1 h. The lodges. Soda in 200 ml of water), and which should gargle as often as possible.If the child is still too small and independently gargle simply can not, he should give a lot of warm drinks.
for pain in the throat of the child should be put a bandage of gauze and bandages, or tie it with a warm scarf.Alternatively, you can make a warm compress oil, which must be heated a few spoonfuls of vegetable (any) oil, then it moistened gauze (cloth to avoid skin burns much baby should not be hot).
to facilitate the patient's condition, in some cases using painkillers and antipyretics.You can use these as a physiotherapy diathermy, UHF therapy, ultraviolet irradiation.Displaying attachment dry heat to the area of the salivary glands.
Regardless of the severity of the disease, for the past ten days must comply with bed rest.Threatening complications of infertility (usually men) usually occur in patients who did not adhere to this requirement.Since pig chewing usually causes pain, the patient should be fed pureed or semi-liquid dairy - plant food that serves as the prevention of pancreatitis.The patient should not be given irritating salivary glands citrus and acidic juices.
Pregnant women who have not been adequate immunization, mumps or chickenpox, be sure to avoid contact with the sick child, as this is often the cause of miscarriage.From the other members of the family of a sick child should always be insulated.