Listeriosis is an acute infectious disease focal belonging to the group of zoonoses caused by micro-organisms and Listeria monocytogencs.Rodents act as guardians of the infection.The causative agent of listeriosis also detected in ticks lxodes regsuixatus.Man is able to catch animals in the ingestion of meat, milk, eggs, infected with Listeria, as well as at the time of the bite of infected arthropods and penetration of Listeria in the respiratory tract.If a significant number of pregnant women suffering tends to stillbirth, this should cause concern and suspicion of listeriosis.
Listeriosis is revealed in many countries in Africa, Europe, Australia, America.After the end of the incubation period, which lasts up to two weeks, it begins the disease itself, which has various clinical forms.
diagnosis of listeriosis set after bacteriological testing of blood, secretions tonsils, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, the firstborn children of feces, mucus from the nose and throat.Pre
Listeriosis person passes or how severe sepsis affecting the central nervous system, tonsils, spleen, lymph nodes, liver, or in the chronic form.
causative agent of listeriosis
causative agent of the disease was first described in 1911 by C. Halfesom.A singled him from sick guinea pigs and rabbits, D. Murray in 1926.The very name of Listeria was proposed in 1927 by W. Peary after Joseph Lister.In 1929, it revealed A. Nifelltom bacteria Listeria from a person with high monocytosis.And in 1935, K. Byrne discovered cases of listeriosis have postpartum women and newborns.
causative agent acts nonsporeforming, mobile, gram-positive bacillus Listeria monocytogenes, which is the type species of the genus Listeria.
causative agent of listeriosis may form a capsule or acquire L-shaped, and the parasite inside the cell, thus determining the slow development of the infection.The causative agent of listeriosis
unpretentious and can grow on ordinary media at any temperature, and ready to breed in water, soil, dead bodies, on plants products.The causative agent of listeriosis is sensitive only to broad-spectrum antibiotics, but there are resistant strains.Pathogen Listeria is released from the human body, along with the secrets of (blood, urine, milk, semen, rectal mucus, cerebrospinal fluid, amniotic fluid).Women in childbirth and newborn children are able to allocate the causative agent of up to 12 days after birth.
the original source of infection is wild and synanthropic rodents with different objects of the environment.
Listeriosis can infect domestic and farm animals.These include pigs, cattle, horses, rabbits, cats, dogs, household and decorative birds.Listeria have been found in foxes, raccoons, wild ungulates, minks, foxes, birds, products of the sea and many natural environments.The most favorable breeding environment are top layers of low-quality silage.Ways of transmission of listeriosis are different: contact, fecal-oral, transplacental, airborne.Animals become infected through the water, feed on rodents or cadaveric bodies.An important role to the blood-sucking insects (mites pasture).Are infected by sick animals, ticks spread the infection to other animals passing the bacteria.The mechanism of human infection is diverse.The source of transmission of listeriosis can act infected water, as well as animal products and vegetables in violation of conditions of storage or heat treatment.
aerogenic established the likelihood of human infection with Listeria, which is possible during the processing of animal feed.Known and another pin pathway, which occurs through cuts and abrasions on the skin.There is evidence of human infection through sex.It is especially dangerous infection listeriosis during pregnancy, when the baby is in danger of transplacentally, and during childbirth.There are cases aerogenic, postpartum food and contact infection of newborns from mothers or medical personnel.The very same natural susceptibility to listeriosis in humans is not high.The disease is more susceptible to the elderly, newborns and persons with immunodeficiency.
disease saprozoonoznoy has all the signs of infection, which is spread everywhere.However, more often it is found in moderate climate areas and in soils which are rich in organic fertilizers.Large-scale economic activities positively contributes to the spread of listeriosis in humans.Ability to group and sporadic diseases.By particularly at risk are pregnant women and newborns.Incidence acquires professional nature among workers of poultry and livestock.Most often the disease recorded in the summer and spring.
primarily affects the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract, eyes and skin.When lymphatic and hematogenous spread of Listeria occurs acute fever.Next is the fixation of the pathogen in the lymph nodes and internal organs: lungs, tonsils, liver, spleen, central nervous system, kidneys, adrenal glands.In these organs is the multiplication of bacteria and inflammation characterized by enlarged lymph nodes, fever, appearance of fever, respiratory disorders, stools, vomiting.If the disease becomes severe over, there is listeriozny sepsis, purulent meningitis, and as a consequence - death.
Listeriosis in pregnancy
During pregnancy the placenta formed listeriomy, and this leads to infection of the fetus, as well as the development of his infection generalized form.The incubation period is prolonged to 45 days.Fetus and the newborn children is characteristic of septic granulomatous form.Listeriosis during pregnancy can flow both erased or asymptomatic disease.If an intrauterine infection of the fetus in the early stages, the probability of death and severe abnormalities (mikrogiriya, hydrocephalus).
disease listeriosis newborn has a very severe course.The infant appears high fever, respiratory disorders, and circulatory system.There may be vomiting, mucous stools or papular rash roseolous-flow.If the disease becomes for purulent meningitis, then the baby is often a fatal outcome.In fact, the clinic Listeriosis of newborns do not recognize because of the similarity with other infections prenatal nature.Infection of the fetus is possible on the early and late months of pregnancy.In the early stages of pregnancy is possible miscarriage or a baby born with all sorts of vices.
In infants gets listeriosis beginning of SARS, and all the typical symptoms: fever baby, runny nose, cough, and over time develops purulent pleurisy or small focal pneumonia.Rarely happens rash maculo-papulleznogo nature, jaundice, meningeal symptoms occur convulsions and paralysis, liver enlargement.Monocytosis rarely found in the hemogram.
After recovery from this form of 20% of children are saved disorders of the CNS and peripheral nervous system.
If the patient has ulcerative plёnchataya angina during listeriosis, the body temperature is rapidly rising up to 39 C, there is a runny nose, cough, sore throat.The patient appears characteristic redness of the mucous membrane of the oropharynx, tonsils and disintegrating increases arise plёnchatye raids, ulcers covered films.At the same time the lymph nodes become enlarged and painful on palpation.Ulcerative plёnchataya angina is characterized by changes in hemogram - leukocytosis and increased ESR and a jump in the number of mononuclear cells.With a favorable outcome of disease duration of 14 days.
Sometimes ulcerative plёnchataya rarely listerioznaya follicular angina in the case of progression can lead to the development of sepsis.It occurs mainly in adults.Rapid Rush gets remitting character, observed hyperemia of polymorphic skin rash, conjunctivitis, and the white almond bloom.Further developing gepatolienalny syndrome, and in some cases there are weaknesses meningeal symptoms.Blood saves marked monocytosis, and the outcome of sepsis listerioznogo often with proper treatment favorable.
Nervous form of listeriosis occurs in the form of meningitis, brain abscess, or meningoencephalitis.Clinical characteristics of the same states.Observed changes in the peripheral nervous system, both in the form of paresis or paralysis of the muscle groups, or polyradiculoneuritis present.Nervous form of listeriosis in HIV infection takes the form of an opportunistic infection.Next
shape of the eye-iron.There are very rare, and appears as a result of contact with infected animals.For patients there is an increase in body temperature and a decrease in visual acuity, edema of the eyelids and conjunctivitis, eye narrowing of the gap and a painful condition of the parotid and cervical lymph nodes.At the same time the cornea remains intact.Listeriosis in the form of proceeds for up to three months.
for listeriosis is characterized by a chronic paucity of clinical manifestations.Celebrating episodic fever with catarrhal symptoms, diarrhea disorders and symptoms of chronic pyelonephritis.
differentiate disease with angina coccal etiology, infectious mononucleosis, purulent meningitis, respiratory viral infections, blood diseases.
laboratory diagnosis includes blood cultures, punctate lymph nodes, mucus from the throat, nose and throat, cerebrospinal fluid, conjunctival discharge, amniotic fluid, placenta, and also includes the analysis of biological cadaveric material.
Taking tests, pay attention to the number of monocytes in the peripheral blood, which should be up to 60-70%.Crops need to do the first 10 days of the onset of the disease.
Treatment of listeriosis
listeriosis patients need special care and nutrition.Treatment of listeriosis prescribed under the shape of the flow.Good effect gives etiotropic drugs, as antibiotic tetracycline.It is also used in the treatment of listeriosis Penicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin or ampicillin.All febrile period prescribed these drugs and then another week against the backdrop of fading of clinical manifestations.If
struck the central nervous system, the means used tetracycline and streptomycin.Use as dehydration therapy.In severe cases, the treatment of listeriosis shows antibiotics in combination with prednisone duration of two weeks.Appointed in a complex and antihistamines (Promethazine, diphenhydramine, Suprastin).For the purpose of detoxification injected sodium chloride solution, glucose solution, Ringer's solution and applied simultaneously enhancing agents urination.EYE-glandular form is treated with eye drops and sodium sulfacetamide emulsion of hydrocortisone.Chronic forms of listeriosis treated with antibiotics for two weeks, and then used Sulfadimidine.
special preventive methods of dealing with listeriosis have not been developed and now includes a wide range of sanitary-veterinary activities.In towns and villages carried out the extermination of rodents brownies, destruction of stray dogs and cats, and those cases of listeriosis, hospitalized.
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