Infectious diseases



lymphadenitis photo Lymphadenitis - a disease accompanied by inflammatory lesions of the lymph nodes, usually infectious etiology.

Lymph nodes are the most important components of the lymphatic system.They are involved in protecting the body.Lymphatic capillaries directed in lymph interstitial fluid, which consists of coarse proteins, fragments of dead cells, microorganisms, and products of their life activities.In addition, lymph nodes includes at specific cells, which are lymphocytes and macrophages.When the body gets an infection, the protection system fails and inflamed lymph nodes, which entails the development of lymphadenitis.This suggests that the immune system is weakened due to various reasons.

on pathological processes affect patient age, infectious diseases, the presence of physical and psychological injuries of nature in the history of the patient, and many others.Also, an increase in the lymph nodes is a violation of the drainage function, namely the signs of hypertrophy of the ly

mph node owing to an overabundance of them developed antibodies against foreign proteins received by the human lymphatic system.

Lymphadenitis reasons

Lymphadenitis is a secondary condition, precedes a primary disease, which gives rise to inflammatory processes.Lymphadenitis is very difficult to diagnose and it requires a thorough analysis of the collected anamnestic data and conduct necessary for an accurate diagnosis procedures.

So, the reason may be specific lymphadenitis tuberculosis, actinomycosis, yersiniosis, syphilis and human immunodeficiency virus.If a person finds a swollen lymph nodes, then it is necessary to consult a specialist.

lymphadenitis Diagnostics is performed according to, to some leaning disease physician.For example, if the inflamed lymph nodes in the neck, jaw, or in the armpit, and also has the presence of clinical symptoms such as sweating, fatigue and adhesions lymph nodes, it suggests that in patients with tuberculosis.To confirm the diagnosis of chest radiograph is performed, analyze the state of the respiratory system by introducing a bronchoscope, appoint a general analysis of blood and urine.

But there are times when to reveal the causes of lymphadenitis is simple enough.When swollen lymph nodes corresponds to only what any one area, then the cause of the pathological process in a certain area of ​​lymph.For example, if there is a festering hand, it says that the inflamed lymph nodes in the armpits, because these lymph nodes is collected from this area of ​​the human body.But sometimes the lymph nodes that perform a barrier function does not allow microorganisms to enter the lymphatic system and then a slight inflammation.

abrasions, carbunculosis, erysipelas, osteomyelitis, thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcers - a constant companions lymphadenitis.The increase in the lymph nodes is the same for diseases of ENT organs (tonsillitis, tonsillitis, pharyngitis, otitis media), and childhood infections (mumps, diphtheria, scarlet fever) and skin diseases (pyoderma, diathesis of various etiologies, eczema).These causes nonspecific lymphadenitis, because the disease is caused by conventional streptococci and staphylococci, which are always present in the patient, but active only when the impact that adverse effects.

Lymphadenitis symptoms

Clinic depends on the type of lymphadenitis.It is: chronic and acute, nonspecific and specific.

nonspecific lymphadenitis streptococci or staphylococci cause, their poisons and decomposition products of tissue primary focus.By the primary tumor include sores, whitlow, boils, carbuncles, bone necrosis, trophic ulcers and other processes.Toxic substances microorganisms enter the body via lymph or blood, as well as by contact with a microbe lymph node as a result of damage.In such case, the pathology - a primary disease.

Given the nature of exudate, it is serous lymphadenitis, hemorrhagic, fibrinous and purulent.The progress of the inflammatory process leads to the formation of destructive forms of lymphadenitis, such as an abscess, and necrosis, as well as the cause, resulting in an increase in the lymph nodes, it is a putrid infection, then they are putrid decay.The initial stage is characterized by lymphadenitis minimal damage and sloughing of the epithelium.Then the fabric is impregnated with serous fluid lymph nodes and infiltration formed.In the final stage of lymphadenitis, lymph cells grow as a result of leukocyte migration.

In simple lymphadenitis focus of inflammation does not extend beyond the borders of limfokapsuly.And the destruction of the surrounding tissues leads to paralimfadenitu, which in turn can cause purulent inflammation, differs from other forms of more severe disease.

Acute lymphadenitis has the following clinical signs: swollen lymph nodes, headache, weakness, fever, inflammation of the blood vessels of the lymphatic system.The severity of symptoms lymphadenitis depends on the shape and nature of the inflammatory disease processes.

serous lymphadenitis virtually no effect on the overall picture of the disease, there is only clinic in the place of enlarged lymph nodes, which is, above all, is the seal of pain on palpation.Progression lymphadenitis processes leads to destructive changes.The pain is worse, the skin in the region of lymph nodes bloodshot when probing sites marked sharp pain.No clear boundaries seals, they are prone to draining and formation of one large fixed element.The temperature is subfebrile, worried sick heart palpitations, severe headache.

Chronic lymphadenitis is divided into primary, which arose as a result of penetration into the body slabozaraznoy microflora and acute lymphadenitis, who took a protracted form.Clinic of these forms of lymphadenitis include the following symptoms: lymph nodes dense and painless on palpation, no adhesions.Often their own cells are replaced by connective tissue, it leads to violations of the lymphatic circulation, lymphedema and extensive edema.

up of a specific lymphadenitis lymphadenitis, caused by a mycobacterium tuberculosis, pale treponema and others.So lymphadenitis tuberculosis clinic replicates the underlying disease.Affects tend to lymph nodes on the periphery, the patient noted their inflammatory and necrotic changes.Tuberculous intoxication progresses, namely, the patient irritable, gets tired quickly, decreased appetite, body temperature figures range from standards to subfebrile figures.

Lymphadenitis submandibular

Lymphadenitis submandibular - a secondary disease.The root cause is the other organ inflammation that results in infection in lymph nodes.Often submandibular lymphadenitis cause mechanical damage to the unit of the lower jaw to the penetration of his wound pathogens, namely streptococci and staphylococci.In addition, the focus of infection may be carious teeth and gum disease, through which the germs get into the lymph.The source of infection are also chronic diseases of ENT organs: tonsillitis, inflammation of the sinuses, and other pathogens, or pulmonary tuberculosis and syphilis.

Lymphadenitis submandibular easily diagnosed.Inflamed lymph node, the patient noted pain and redness in the area of ​​the seal, locally observed hyperthermia.If the node is accumulated pus, then joined the swelling surrounding host tissue.The patient is weakened, his skin pale, no appetite.In an analysis of blood leukocyte is a shift to the left.Ultrasound examination reveals the presence of pus in the node, the puncture is easy to find out which group of pathogens include bacteria, causing inflammation.

Acute always increases during a single lymph node, a rare group of nodes.Pus in this case accumulate in a closed space, and sealing pressure is uniformly applied in all directions.This process is called a fluctuation which may lead to rupture of the lymphatic node and to the output of the contents to the surrounding tissue, which is fraught with progression of inflammation.This pain is marked not only in the area of ​​the affected unit, but also in the neck, which prevents fully open and close the mouth.

Improper treatment submandibular lymphadenitis translates disease into a chronic form.Clinical symptoms are similar to the same in acute lymphadenitis, but the seals are fixed, the patient experiences a high fever and chills.Also affected tissue adjacent to the site.

Pediatric pathological process occurs with the same frequency as that of the adults.But three years submandibular lymphadenitis can not arise, because the lymphatic system of the child has not yet developed.Small patient complains of pain on palpation of the cervical or submandibular lymph nodes.Parents themselves can easily find the seal, they become soft and moving on further inflammation.


reason inguinal lymphadenitis serve a variety of infections, fungal, bacterial and viral, malignant processes the pelvic and abdominal cavity, boils, sores and abscesses feet.Taking certain medications can also cause bubonadenitis.

Anatomically inguinal lymph nodes are involved in the mechanism of receipt of lymph in the buttocks, abdomen, anus, sexual organs and lower extremities.Accordingly, the lymph nodes in the groin area is divided into three types: upper lymph nodes (buttocks and abdomen), the mean lymph nodes (anus, genitals and perineum) and lower lymph nodes (lower limbs).The inflammatory process can capture as one lymph node, and their group.Sometimes serous lymphadenitis flowing without creating necrosis of certain areas of the seals, and purulent lymphadenitis, abscess formation leading to lymph node and surrounding tissue.

Clinic inguinal lymphadenitis diverse.Lymph nodes increase in size, there is pain at rest and at their palpation.When walking, the patients feel discomfort at the bottom of the abdomen, and a sharp pain.By Associated symptoms include high fever, weakness and chills.Compounded bubonadenitis localized swelling and flushing of the skin.This indicates that the seal is formed pus, which is a major factor in breaking the lymph node and output content in interstitial space.

for inguinal lymphadenitis acute form is characterized by the sudden onset of inflammation, which is manifested in the increase of lymph nodes and concomitant symptoms.Rapid development in the degree of inflammation becomes phlegmon, which leads to the necrotic degradation.It is fraught with the development of sepsis, and therefore requires immediate medical attention.

Women suffer inguinal lymphadenitis as often as men.Only they lymphadenitis occurs for reasons related to the anatomy of the female body.It can be ovarian cysts, infections caused by fungi of the genus Candida, cancer of the pelvic organs.The pathological process in this case may cause the formation of lymphogranuloma - small ulcers, leading to the development of adhesions and fistula with purulent discharge.

Men suffering inflammation of the lymph nodes for reasons connected with metastases in the internal and external genital organs, sexually transmitted and infectious diseases.Since the formation of malignant tumors, there is a need in the surgical treatment because it starts a mechanism of metastasis of tumors in the lymph nodes.The rate of this phenomenon is large enough and can lead to worsening of the patient's condition.As a result of an unfavorable prognosis inguinal lymphadenitis.

Children are increased in this group of seals less often than adults.This is due to the fact that the percentage of cases of infection with sexually transmitted diseases and the development of small oncology groin in children is not common.The reasons leading to the children's inguinal lymphadenitis include: intrauterine infections, weakened immune system, violation of the current of the lymphatic fluid and surrounding tissue microtrauma newborns.These factors can be fatal to the kids, because it leads to an early death and developing comorbidities.

Clinical signs of inguinal lymphadenitis all three age groups are not significant differences and comply with the above.

cervical lymphadenitis

cervical lymphadenitis - a lymph node inflammation of the neck.Its provocative factors include pathogens flu, sore throat, tonsillitis, rhinitis and otitis media.The microbes entering the body, trying to hit the immunity of the person, but the protection system blocks the lymph nodes and localize them.In response to this, the cervical lymph nodes enlarged and sealed.But with the progression of cervical lymphadenitis come to the fore other clinical signs.The patient noted a headache, body temperature above 39 ° C, loss of appetite and fatigue.When time begun treating cervical lymphadenitis, swelling completely disappears on the 4th day.But if lymphadenitis is acute or chronic, symptomatic treatment may be somewhat different.

In acute disease species are showing signs of a strong suppuration of lymph nodes, accompanied by high fever and local changes.First seal has the form of a large boil, then its boundaries become less clear, and the lymph node loses mobility.Such a tumor can develop into an adenoma or cause sepsis.The chronic form of cervical lymphadenitis is prone to relapse.It is sufficient to transfer the small coed feet infection and inflammatory process again will make itself felt.In addition, chronic seal - a common symptom of pulmonary tuberculosis.

Children suffer inflammation of the lymph nodes in the neck lymphadenitis often enough, but the serious consequences of this, as a rule, does not carry.In the history of the child may be allergic to various etiologies, thyroid disease, pathological manifestations of connective tissue.Clinically lymphadenitis manifested symptoms of intoxication, insomnia, lack of appetite and severe swelling in the neck that does not bring the baby any pain.With adequate treatment of cervical lymphadenitis risk of complications for the baby is minimal, in severe cases it can cause myocarditis, which is manifested by lethargy and shortness of breath.

Podmyshechny lymphadenitis

This pathological process that occurs on a background of catarrhal or purulent inflammation of the axillary lymph nodes, and is not an independent disease.Serous form podmyshechnogo lymphadenitis characterized by sensitivity and a sharp pain at the localization of a seal with the local changes are minor, no adhesions.The general condition of the patient does not suffer.

kind of purulent lymphadenitis podmyshechnogo describe as a serious form of disease.Multiple inflamed lymph nodes and form the so-called conglomerate, which in turn leads to spikes.The patient gets worse, he noted fever, tachycardia, and severe headache.In the absence of treatment, fused together elements of nodes are prone to abscess formation and phlegmonous adenitis, with poor prognosis is the cause of sepsis.

triggering mechanism of lymphadenitis axilla cause all sorts of organisms, ranging from the more common staphylococcus, streptococcus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas sticks, ending the rarer types of pneumococcus and diplococci.

are three ways lymph node infection: via the lymph, blood, and the wound surface in contact with the bacterium.Lymphadenitis Clinic does not depend on the type of infection of human infection.

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