intestinal flu - a pathology of viral etiology, occurring in different age categories and is accompanied by severe clinical symptoms gastroenterocolitis that needs immediate correction.Intestinal flu develops exclusively during infection human body specific type of virus "Rotavirus" and in view of the specificity of ways to spread this pathology is considered a pediatric as well as the main risk group are persons infancy.The recent increase in the incidence of intestinal flu in adults, and infectious disease specialists explain this fact by a mutation of the virus.
According to statistics on the proportion of the incidence of intestinal flu accounts for at least 40% of gastroenteritis in children, occurring in varying degrees of severity.Infection of intestinal flu adults usually observed upon contact with the patient as a result of the child care.The diagnosis of "gastro - intestinal flu" was first established infectious disease in the United States, and then became widespr
reasons intestinal flu
intestinal flu Infection can occur as a contact with a sick person, and with clinically healthy, which is the only carrier of the virus.The maximum intensity of viral replication occurs in the cells that line the mucous membranes of the digestive tract, and the removing of the decay products made with natural stool (feces).
this highly contagious infectious disease caused by an intestinal flu virus is excreted in the feces in the first day from the moment it enters the body.The main way of transmission of intestinal flu - nutritional, ie in the human oral cavity virus gets infected food.Virologists not exclude the possibility of infection by intestinal flu and air - droplets through close contact with a sick person.Contact-household transmission method intestinal flu virus is the exception to the rule.
intestinal flu virus is highly resistant to the effects of environmental factors in the form of a pronounced decline or rise in temperature, so the destruction of its only possible with concentrated chlorine disinfectants.Virologists say the seasonal nature of the intestinal flu, as the maximum incidence occurs in autumn and winter.
Despite the fact that the most common causative agent is rotavirus intestinal flu virologists argue that this pathology can cause other viruses having activity on the surface of the intestinal mucosa in the form of adenovirus, calicivirus, astroviruses and norovirus.
pathogenesis of diarrhea as the main clinical symptom specific intestinal flu, is the defeat of the mucous membranes of the stomach and small intestine and subsequent violations of the metabolic processes occurring in the human body.The penetration of intestinal flu virus in the intestines is very fast, and then there is a violation of integrity of the intestinal mucosa and therefore a violation of the digestive enzyme product which action aimed at splitting of complex sugars.As a result of such disturbances occur excessive accumulation of carbohydrates in the small intestine, which connect the liquid, causing the development of diarrhea.
Symptoms and signs of intestinal flu
debut with the clinical manifestations of intestinal flu is no different high specificity, and therefore, early diagnosis of the disease, carried out only on the basis of the clinical symptom, it becomes impossible.Most early and severe manifestations of intestinal flu, weight of the patient, is a frequent, loose stools, and fever.In addition to the increased frequency and consistency of discharge violations changed their character, they become malodorous and light.
Like any viral disease, the clinical picture of intestinal flu has several stages of development.Thus, the incubation period of intestinal flu observed in all patients and the duration of it is on average 3-5 days.The incubation period of the virus intestinal flu patients experienced symptoms of the so-called "prodrome" is the appearance of fever subfebrile character, hyperemia of the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose and conjunctiva.The duration of the flow of intestinal flu, generally not more than seven days, followed by a complete recovery of the patient.
After the incubation period, the patient has a sharp deterioration is the appearance of severe nausea accompanied by vomiting of food ingested, fever, febrile type, persistent diarrhea, a complete lack of appetite and malaise that indicates the beginning of the acute phase of an intestinal flu.For non-specific manifestations of intestinal flu requiring differentiation from other diseases, it is pain and a feeling of "tickle" in the throat, dry cough, and nasal congestion.
long for intestinal flu, accompanied by frequent episodes of vomiting and diarrhea, provoke rapid excretion of fluids from the body, accompanied by the development of a typical clinical picture of dehydration as dry skin, reduce urine output, reducing the skin turgor and muscle mass.The deterioration of the patient is observed in development had signs of dysbiosis, the development of which is due to excretion of intestinal beneficial microflora.
Due to the fact that the clinical manifestations of intestinal flu do not have a high specificity for accurate verification of the diagnosis to the patient should undertake a number of specific laboratory tests as a polymerase chain reaction, passive hemagglutination, complement fixation and immunofluorescence.
intestinal flu in adults
adult category of patients is not always serious about the clinical manifestations of intestinal flu, taking it beyond the banal upset stomach.Despite its name, for intestinal flu is not characterized by respiratory distress, and localization problems occur in the stomach and intestines.In addition to the characteristic manifestations gasroenterokolita that often accompany the development of the intestinal flu, the patient may experience signs of intoxication syndrome in the form of the reaction temperature, weakness, widespread pain in muscles.The duration of clinical symptom in the intestinal flu, as a rule, not exceed three days, but sometimes there is a heavy lingering for not only children but also adults.
In contrast to children, adult patients infected by the age of intestinal flu virus as a result of eating contaminated water or contact method.
only dangerous complication of intestinal flu is dehydration, and to a greater degree given the pathological condition develops in the elderly.This category of patients needs not only to oral rehydration and parenteral solutions needed to replenish the volume of liquid in the body.According to statistics, the outlook for the recovery of patients with intestinal flu is generally favorable, and at the same time there is evidence of the development of lethal diseases as a result of dehydration.
Currently, the diagnosis of intestinal flu provoked by the action of a group of viruses Rotavirus is not difficult even on an outpatient basis, which is used Cito-test of stool for the presence of the virus.In a situation where an intestinal flu is caused by a different group of viruses, this technique is not effective.For the purpose of differential diagnosis of intestinal flu with other diseases with similar symptoms of bacterial origin, should sow defecating in a bacterial laboratory.
In contrast to the recommendations of the treatment of intestinal flu in pediatrics to adults of priority measures is the appointment of antiemetics (Promethazine 1 tablet orally) and antidiarrheal agents (loperamide in the maximum daily dose of 16 mg).
intestinal flu in children
The main risk for the development of intestinal flu are children, and for this viral disease in pediatrics, as a rule, the heavy, due to the development of intoxication syndrome.After infection, the child's bowel intestinal flu virus, already in the first hours of the disease the child is a danger to others, as the virus begins to actively highlight and promote intestinal flu.This explains the occurrence of intestinal flu outbreaks in day care centers, where there is concurrent illness in some children.
intestinal manifestations of influenza in children are more intense than in adults and are in the development of heavy gastroenterocolitis (continuous vomiting undigested food residues, diarrhea stool frequency more than 20 times a day, febrile fever).Patognogmonichnymi intestinal flu symptoms in children is the color change of urine, which becomes dark with blood in feces while, in contrast, becomes lighter and has a disagreeable odor due to processes of fermentation in the gut.
view of the fact that children are at risk for the development of gastroenterocolitis of various etiologies, including bacterial, existing child intestinal flu symptoms require differentiation with salmonellosis, cholera, food poisoning.Signs of dehydration in the intestinal flu in the newborn child is uncontrollable vomiting, severe diarrhea with copious liquid stool mixed with blood, retraction fontanelle, severe dry skin, depression and lack of reflexes tears when crying.
mainstay of therapy in pediatric intestinal flu up measures to combat dehydration, involves the use of means of reducing water-salt balance (Regidron a daily dose of at least 1.5 liters).In addition to drug prevention dehydrated child needs to take on a larger volume of liquid in the form of strong tea, broth hips.At the same time, the child should not eat dairy products that can enhance the process of fermentation in the gut.Prolonged diarrhea in a child is an indication for the appointment protivopronosnyh funds (Enterofuril in suspension 500 mg).
When uncomplicated child's complete recovery occurs not later than a week, but after the relief of the clinical manifestations of intestinal flu, treatment should be supplemented with one of the drugs that normalize the intestinal microflora (Hilak forte at a dose of 20 drops three times a day).Duration of therapy should be at least 20 days.It should be noted that even after the full recovery of the child as an adult, does not develop resistant lifelong immunity to the pathogen intestinal flu, which explains the emergence of re-infection of children with the virus for non-compliance prevention.
essential interventions for prevention of intestinal flu in infants is the promotion of breastfeeding, as with mother's milk to the baby receives antibodies in sufficient quantity to the majority of potential viral agents, including rotavirus.
treatment of intestinal flu
Drug therapy intestinal flu chosen strictly individual doctor, taking into account not only clinical manifestations available to the patient, and instrumental data and laboratory studies.Thus, the same pharmaceuticals in intestinal flu different patients may have different therapeutic effects.With a favorable course of the disease the patient can be treated on an outpatient basis, with the exception of intestinal flu during pregnancy requires immediate hospitalization and all the necessary measures to combat dehydration.
With respect symptomatic treatment measures focus there are various ways of correction of existing patient complications.The main focus of symptomatic treatment measures applied to reduce the negative impact of intestinal flu on the body, to prevent the development of dehydration, reduce the toxic effects of the decay products in the intestine, restoring the function of the urinary system, to prevent additional bacterial infection.
Thus, due to the fact that the temperature of intestinal flu, generally rises to high numbers necessary is the application of methods of eliminating the fever, for which drugs such as paracetamol used at a dose of 0.2 g in a situation where the use of drugsparatsetamolovogo series does not bring the desired effect in the form of normalization of temperature, it is necessary to use the intramuscular administration of 2 ml Analgin and diphenhydramine 1% solution of 1 ml.Typically, this injection is accompanied by a pronounced therapeutic effect not later than 10 minutes after its introduction.Note that patients with intestinal flu should be used antipyretic drugs only when the body temperature is higher than 38 degrees, as the unexpressed fever contrary contributes to the early death of the virus.
next in the incidence of symptomatic intestinal flu, which is present in 100% of cases, is diarrhea.The elimination of the medically inappropriate to apply symptomatic diarrhea drugs, and use of specific antiviral and antibacterial agents, which action is directed to the inhibition of virus replication and itself in the intestine.For drugs such action is nifuroxazide 0.1 g every 6 hours orally.In addition to the pathogenetic therapy of diarrhea it is advisable to appoint a patient receiving enzyme drugs to improve digestion and avoid excessive fermentation in the gut, which is used Creon.In order to prevent or eliminate existing intoxication syndrome, which occurs even after brief within the intestinal flu, the patient should receive sorbents (Smecta orally at a daily dose of 9 mg).
With regard to the fight against signs of dehydration in the body, the patient should organize regular drinking regime, implying the regular intake of clean drinking water in the amount of not less than two liters per day, as well as oral intake of special salt solutions such as rehydron (one sachet dissolved in one liter of boiledwater and drink the solution should be within a day).Can serve as a substitute for rehydron weak broth chamomile with 1 tsp. Salt and 1/2 teaspoon baking soda.Take this decoction should be small portions, in order to avoid the development of retching.
the whole period of treatment and rehabilitation period nutritionists developed a special diet for intestinal flu, implying the complete exclusion from the diet of the patient fried and spicy foods, as well as severely restricting the use of products that encourage pronosnoe action (raw fruits and vegetables, dairy products).
in respect of preventive measures in the intestinal flu should distinguish between measures of primary prevention (their action is aimed at preventing possible infection of the intestinal flu) and secondary prevention (the effectiveness of their aims to prevent the possibility of recurrence).Note that the intestinal flu, like any other anthroponotic viral pathology, has a high coefficient of contagiousness, so like a sick man, and a carrier of the virus poses a real threat to the people around him.
Unfortunately, to date no virologists developed methods of drug prevention of intestinal flu, and therefore, the administration of drugs to the patient should be matched only with the appearance of the first clinical manifestations of the disease.