Uterine Cancer - Treatment
Cancer of the uterus (endometrial cancer, cancer of the endometrium, uterine cancer) - a malignant tumor that develops from the tissues of the uterus that can subsequently spread throughout the body.To date, cancer of the uterus was very widespread and occupies fourth place in women, second only in the incidence of breast cancer, skin and gastrointestinal tract.Development of of cancer most affects women older than 50 years.Since cancer is a multi-layer body, the type of developing cancer depends on the place of its localization
Cancer of the uterus - the causes of
There are several factors that can aggravate the risk of cancer of the uterus, but the exact cause of this disease today is not defined.According to numerous studies, risk factors for uterine cancer include: hypertension, diabetes, smoking, HIV infection with human papilloma virus, irregular menstruation and late menopause, sexually transmitted diseases, earlier onset of sexual activity, infertility
serious risk factor for the disease is obesity.If women's weight exceeds the norm by 10-25 kg, the risk of uterine cancer increases three times, and if the body weight exceeds the norm for women is 25 kilograms, then nine times.
significant role in the occurrence of this malignancy play following precancerous lesions: scars after birth trauma, erosion, ulcers, leukoplakia and epithelial growths (polyps, warts), chronic inflammation (endometritis and endocervicitis).
Depending on the nature of the epithelium of various parts of the uterus secrete adenocarcinoma (glandular cancer) cervical canal and the uterine cavity and neck squamous cell carcinoma.Adenocarcinoma is the main morphological variant with a prevalence of about 70%.Enough rare tumor that affects the uterus, is a sarcoma.The differentiation of the tumor is divided into three levels: non-differentiated, moderately differentiated and high-grade.
addition to differentiation, distinguish four stages of cancer of the uterus:
Stage 1 - the tumor is located in the body of the uterus
Stage 2 - the tumor affects the body and cervix
Stage 3 - the tumor extends to the parametrial tissue metastases in the vagina
4stage - tumor spread beyond the pelvis, germinating in the bladder and / or rectum
How to reduce the risk of cancer of the uterus
According to numerous studies have found that combined oral contraceptives (birth control pills) significantly reduces the risk of developinguterine cancer, especially in nulliparous women.It is assumed that the protective effect of oral contraceptives contraceptive developed after one year of regular intake of these drugs and may remain the order of ten years from the date of termination of their use.
It is a paradox, but according to research, the risk of developing cervical cancer is significantly reduced in female smokers (most likely due to the early onset of menopause), but even to prevent cancer smoking is strongly discouraged, as it is smoking greatly increases the risk of other malignancies(cervical cancer, lung cancer, and so forth.)
Uterine Cancer - Symptoms
all women over forty years recommended follow very closely the appearance of their possible manifestations of the symptoms of cancer of the uterus.If symptoms will be seen immediately after the occurrence of the cancer and the woman without the slightest delay to see a doctor - the chances of a full recovery increase significantly.However, unfortunately uterine cancer is a disease such obvious symptoms which manifests itself only in the later stages.
signs and symptoms of cervical cancer before menopause
If a woman is in its infancy menopause - vaginal may experience irregular spotting that from month to month are becoming scarce and come less.
During this period, a symptom of uterine cancer should consider all bloody vaginal discharge, which over time has not become less frequent and less abundant.In addition, the suspected cancer of the uterus can be the case if monthly gradually became more and more scarce and rare, and then suddenly began to come more and more to grow
signs and symptoms of cervical cancer in menopausal
If a woman has reached menopause (menopause), and she had at least had no menstruation for several months, symptoms of cervical cancer should be considered as any bleeding or any bleeding from the vagina, regardless of their frequency, duration, or the amount of (scarce or plentiful)
Other possible symptoms of uterine cancer
Regardless of age and the presence of menopause, for possible symptoms of cervical cancer may include: bleeding or pain during or after sex;nagging pain in the perineum, lower back or bottom of the abdomen;fatigue and noticeable weight loss.
In the event of any of the above symptoms, you should immediately consult a doctor, and the sooner this is, the more will be the chances of a full recovery.
In pregnant women, cancer of the uterus is very rare, and in the case of detection during pregnancy to save the woman's life is shown abortion and hysterectomies
Uterine Cancer - Diagnostics
Diagnosis of the disease is to conduct an internal pelvic examination withusing mirrors, allowing the doctor to inspect the vaginal part of the cervix and the walls of the vagina to eliminate the causes of bleeding, which can be directly related to the diseases of these organs.If uterine cancer took over vast areas, through the rectum to conduct additional research to clarify the transition of a malignant tumor in the sacro - uterine ligaments and the pelvic wall.In all cases, any - any changes, to detect the presence of early forms of cancer of the cervix Smears for cytology and biopsy.
conducted Other diagnostic methods include: lymphography, ultrasound imaging, IVP, ileokavagrafiya, ergography, sigmoidoscopy, cystoscopy, MRI, CT, fine needle biopsy of the tumor and limfangiografiya.These studies are very important to develop an optimal plan, or a combination of radiation therapy
Uterine Cancer - Treatment
Tactics of treatment depends on the general condition and age of the patient and the clinical stage of the cancer.In most cases, the detection of the disease in its early stages, treatment is surgical complete removal of both the uterus and its appendages (ovaries, fallopian tubes), and sometimes it is necessary both to remove lymph nodes in the pelvis.In the later stages of the disease treatment is carried out by irradiation (radiation therapy, radiotherapy) and drugs (chemotherapy).In addition, possible to carry out the combined treatment, when for surgical intervention should be intracavitary gamma - therapy.At stage 3 cancer of the uterus shows preoperative radiotherapy.As a separate method, radiation therapy is used in case of a local location of a malignant tumor, as well as various contraindications for surgery.When the third and fourth stages of the disease effectively used anticancer drugs.
In the case of early detection and adequate treatment of the immediate - forecast later in life is quite favorable.Removing (hysterectomy), the uterus eliminates not only the affected organ, but to avoid the further spread of lymphogenous and hematogenous route.In case of delayed treatment to the doctor, very survival rate drops significantly.Even after surgery, cancer of the uterus 2 stage - survival rate is about 60% with 3 or more stage - about 20%.