Cervical cancer - the second most common cancer in women, after breast cancer.This malignant tumor develops from the mucous lining of the cervix in the area of transition in the cervical vaginal epithelium.In the world annually identify about five hundred thousand new cases of cervical cancer, and in most of the patients present a malignancy of the - of the very rapid growth and due to late diagnosis, revealed already at a late stage
Cervical Cancer - CausesDevelopment
Causes of this malignancy have not yet fully understood.There is a widespread opinion that one of the key roles in the development of this cancer plays a HPV (human papilloma virus), or to be more precise, his 16 and 18 types.The virus, being a long time in the cells of the cervix, leading to mutational changes, which are one of the main causes of cancer cells.Despite this, HPV does not fully explain the cause of cancerous lesions of the cervix, ascervical cancer arises not all women with such infection.
Just want to note that the presence of the woman of one / some of the following factors does not mean that in the future it will develop a terrible cancer.Risk factors you need to know for several reasons: - First, some of them, such as smoking and promiscuous sex (often lead to infection HPV) can easily give up;in - the second, the knowledge of all risk factors, can contribute in a timely manner to the survey, for the purpose of diagnosis of cervical cancer in its earliest stages
Risk factors that can trigger the development of cervical cancer :
main risk factor is infection of women with human papillomavirus, being at risk include more than one hundred virus types, some of which can cause the development of warts (papillomas) and others (HPV16, 18, 32, etc.) in 50% of cases this leads to the development of malignant tumors.Other types of HPV cause warts on the emergence of a variety of body parts (lips, or tongue, feet, hands, etc.).Some types of the virus is able to infect the anus and genitals (in both sexes).
twice as likely to rest, cervical cancer ill female smokers.Based on the research results, it has been proven that women who smoked more than a pack a day of cigarettes sick five times more often.
HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) weakens the immune defenses of the female body, so that a woman is more susceptible to HPV.This increases the risk of developing this cancer.
common infection, affecting the female reproductive system is a chlamydia infection that spreads through sexual contact.The presence of chlamydial infection leads to a significant increase in the risk of developing cervical cancer.
increases the risk of cancer and the use of the insufficient amount of fruits and vegetables.Significantly increases the risk of cancer as a result of being overweight or asthenic syndrome caused by a variety of unbalanced diets.
risk of cervical cancer increases with chronic administration of birth control pills (five years or more).Women using these drugs for ten years or more, are subject to a four-fold risk of developing this cancer.
In addition, the excess of cervical cancer occur in women who have had multiple pregnancies ended childbirth;women of low socio - economic status;in women whose mothers / sisters suffered this oncology.
If you try to avoid all of the above risk factors (in addition to family history), the chance of developing this malignancy is significantly reduced
Cervical Cancer - Symptoms
symptoms of cervical cancer can be divided into general and specific.Common symptoms include loss of appetite, weakness, weight loss, unexplainable rise in body temperature, sweating, dry and pale skin, dizziness.
Specific symptoms include :
- slight (spotting) or heavy (sometimes real bleeding), bleeding from the genital tract, which often occur after sexual contact.Might appear in the form of acyclic secretions, as well as on the background of menopause.Dedicated to the late stages of acquiring quite an unpleasant odor that is associated with the destruction of the tumor
- Pain in the lower abdomen.There are in advanced forms of cancer due to the accession of infection or tumor invasion into other pelvic structures or organs.Or the pain may be accompanied by a spotting
- With the progression of the disease, as well as in advanced and severe cases, there may be swelling of the external genitalia and limbs.This is due to metastasis into the pelvic lymph nodes next, leading to blockage of the large vessels which are withdrawn from the lower limb blood
- There is a malfunction of the bladder and bowel.This is due to tumor invasion of these bodies - formed fistula (not existing in the hole between the norm)
- There is a delay of urine, that develops as a result of compression of the ureter metastatic lymph nodes, followed by shutdown of the kidneys work and development of hydronephrosis.In the aftermath of the - of the poisoning of the body waste products developed uremia, and in case of a complete lack of urine - anuria.In addition, these changes often lead to the fact that patients die of severe infectious complications that developed as a result of penetration of purulent infection of the urinary tract
- In the later stages may develop swelling of the lower limbs.Arises due to the presence of metastases in the pelvic lymph nodes, leading to compression of the large blood vessels of the limbs
most susceptible to the development of metastases bodies are the inguinal lymph nodes, lungs, liver and bones
Cervical cancer - stage
Stage 0 or initial stage.After timely appropriate treatment survival of the patients is about 98 - 100%
Step 1 (A, B, A1, B1, A2, B2) is subdivided into subgroups where in stage A tumor invasion in a tissue of the cervix is less than 5 millimeters,and at the stage in the tumor reaches 4 centimeters
Stage 2 (A, B).At this stage, the tumor spreads to the uterus, while not engaging with the process of the wall of the pelvis and upper third of the vagina
Stage 3 .At this stage, the tumor grows into the wall of the pelvis and upper third of the vagina, causing one side hydronephrosis
Stage 4 .There germination of the tumor in the rectum, bladder and / or pelvis (usually in the pelvis), and distant metastasis
screenings called metastases from primary tumors that have its structure.They are able to grow fast enough, disrupting the proper functioning of those bodies in which they develop.Sometimes metastases can achieve a truly huge (more than ten centimeters).In most cases of cervical cancer spreads to the lymph nodes in the vicinity of a small basin along the iliac vascular bundles;and from distant organs - the liver, the lungs (pleural) and other organs.In the case of single metastases, when removed, there are great chances of cure;if they are multiple - shown only maintenance chemotherapy.Metastatic lesions lining of the lungs (pleurisy) is delivered to patients are very serious problems, since they lead to accumulation of fluid in the chest cavity, which leads to compression of organs (heart, lungs), causing chest tightness, shortness of breath and the subsequent depletion of patients.
Subject of qualified adequate treatment (radiation therapy, surgery, or a combination thereof), a favorable prognosis is possible if the initial and 1 and 2 stages.At 3 and 4 stages the survival rate of patients does not exceed 40%
Cervical Cancer - Diagnostics
Diagnosis of the disease begins with the inspection, cytology smears Pappanikolau, abdominal ultrasound, vaginal ultrasound and kolpokopii (allows you to study in detail the surface of the cervix).In the case of a suspicious area is shown biopsy for subsequent histological examination.It is safe to judge the presence of cancer in women or precancerous states allows only a biopsy.For more accurate detection of possible spread of MRI and CT.If the patient has been identified suspicious changes in cervical cells may hold cryosurgery (method using liquid nitrogen) or laser surgery.In the early stages, these methods almost always can eliminate precancerous diseases and thereby prevent the occurrence of cervical cancer
Cervical cancer - treatment
Surgery .Held removal of the uterus (hysterectomy), along with nearby lymph nodes.This often need spaying absent, which means that women, who are in premenopausal, surgery does not cause menopause.If, however, removal of the ovaries is a must to prevent the typical symptoms of menopause, shown holding hormone replacement therapy.In exceptional cases, if the lesion of the cervix is very small, and women in the future want to have children, as a therapeutic method may conduct conization
Hysterectomy is rather complex and serious operations, so the final recovery should strictly adhere to certain rules of postoperativerehabilitation period, namely, for a few months (the exact number determined by a physician) after surgery to avoid heavy lifting and strenuous exercise;to accelerate the healing of scars, should be the first few weeks to abstain from sex
Radiotherapy .Radiotherapy in early stages of the disease brings the same positive effect as surgical intervention, but the side effects are much more difficult, as one of them - is a complete loss of ovarian function.That is why in the initial stages of the disease, the predominant method of treatment is surgery.If the cancerous lesion has spread beyond the cervix and is incurable exclusively surgical techniques, radiotherapy prefer.In addition, in case of risk of recurrence (if in the pathological process involved lymph glands) may conduct radiotherapy after surgical intervention.Side effects of radiation therapy are fatigue, painful urination, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea.The most serious side effect is considered to be irreversible damage to the ovaries, which results in (younger women) to the menopause.For ease symptoms (depression, anxiety, "tides") shown holding hormone replacement therapy
Chemotherapy .Conducting this type of therapy is shown in various situations.Some women at high risk of relapse, to reduce the cancer lesion and increase the chance of cure, chemotherapy is performed immediately before the radiotherapy.Chemotherapy is also indicated in the case, if for - some reason can not be applied radiotherapeutic methods (get maximum radiation dose germinated cancer cells to other parts of the body and so forth.).Chemotherapy is carried out in order to control tumor growth, to reduce its size and relief of symptoms, but is not able to provide a cure.