Lung cancer - a malignant neoplasm that develops from the glands and mucous membranes of the lung tissue and bronchi.In today's world of lung cancer among all cancer takes the top spot.According to statistics, the oncology affects men eight times more often than women, and it was observed that the older the age, the much higher incidence of .For example, men in the age range from sixty to seventy years old suffer from lung cancer in sixty times more than forty years.For particular risk include black men
Lung cancer - the cause of
Causes of this disease are very diverse, but all of them can be divided into independent and dependent directly on the person.By
beyond (unchanged) factors include: the presence of a tumor in a patient other organs for cancer of lung disease in the immediate family (genetic predisposition).In addition to the independent factors include the presence of a person has chronic lung diseases (tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis, scarring of the lung tissue,
K dependent or modifiable factors primarily include smoking, which is the main proven cause of lung cancer.Callers cancerous lesions toxic carcinogenic substances emitted during the combustion of tobacco, and there are about 4,000 species (referred to the most dangerous - naftalamin, toluidine, benzpyrene nitroso compounds and heavy metals: strontium and nickel).Once in the lungs by inhaled cigarette smoke, all of the above compounds are deposited on the surface of the bronchial mucosa burning it, thereby destroying the living cells, which leads to destruction of the mucous layer (ciliated epithelium);then these compounds through the blood vessels absorbed into the blood, which already carries them throughout the body, leading to similar changes in the internal organs, brain, kidneys and liver.
Inhaled cigarette smoke all the harmful substances are not discharged to the outside and did not dissolve and permanently settle in the lungs, forming clusters, slowly covering the lungs kind of black soot.For comparison: the lungs of healthy people have a soft porous structure and gentle - pink, and smoker's lungs - blue - black or completely black, rough inelastic tissue.
most dangerous carcinogen is benzpyrene which has on bronchial mucosa directly damaging effects even in small doses causes degeneration of normal cells.Secondhand smoke is just as dangerous as direct himself a smoker takes on quite a small part of smoke, breathing in the ambient air is about 80% of the smoke.An important role in the risk of lung cancer plays a smoking history.When smoked in more than two packs a day and at the experience of more than ten years, the risk of developing this cancer increases 25 times.
addition to factors that increase the risk of developing lung cancer include a variety of professional effects, which include:
- Work related to the extraction of coal, rubber industry, radon mine
- Work in blacksmithing associated with asbestos production andgrinding metal products
- Work on linen, cotton and production of fulling
- Work involves close contact with toxic chemicals and heavy metals (aluminum, nickel, chromium, arsenic)
In addition, an important factor is the pollution of the ambient air.Residents of big cities every day thousands of inhaled carcinogens that are released into the air as a result of the combustion of motor fuels and operation of a plurality of factories.Inhalation of these compounds eventually necessarily lead to the fact that the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract is reborn
Lung Cancer - Symptoms
Suspected lung cancer symptoms allow, which are divided into general and specific.Common symptoms include weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss, unexplainable slight rises in temperature, sweating.
specific symptoms of lung cancer :
- causeless arising debilitating hacking cough (accompanied by bronchial cancer).Closely monitor their health, the patient is able to independently observe the changed nature of the cough - it becomes hoarse and more frequent, changing the nature of sputum.If paroxysmal cough occurs without any - any reason, or in connection with physical exertion or inhalation of cold air - this indicates irritation of the mucous bronchial tree to grow into the lumen of his tumor.In the case of central lung cancer, there is the appearance of greenish - yellow phlegm that is caused by the presence of concomitant inflammation in lung tissue
- Perhaps the most common symptom of lung cancer is hemoptysis (sputum allocated the blood), in which the blood can be in the form of darkclots and frothy bright - scarlet.In some cases, the duration and intensity of bleeding from the airways leads to death of patients.However, we must not forget that hemoptysis may be symptoms and diseases such as the lung bronchiectasis and tuberculosis
- In connection with the ongoing changes in the lung tissue, a person may experience frequent shortness of breath.If the tumor grow in large bronchi may attack the whole lung atelectasis and its subsequent complete exclusion from the work
- The emergence of pain in the chest.This is due to tumor invasion of the pleura (the serous lining of the lungs), which has a lot of painful endings, as well as due to concomitant inflammatory changes in the lung, tumor invasion into large nerve plexus and bones of the chest
In the initial stages of lung cancer, pain absentintense resistant pain characteristic of running late stages of tumor
Clinical - radiological forms of lung cancer:
- bronchial cancer (central cancer).Developed in the lumen of the segmental, equity and the main bronchi.A tumor can grow in the lumen of the bronchus, and the lung tissue that surrounds the bronchus.In the initial stages, this tumor does not manifest itself, and very often it is not visible on x-rays and x-rays (shadow merges with the tumor blood vessels and heart).The presence of the tumor may be suspected only by the presence of indirect signs on chest radiographs: education in the same spot repeated inflammation.Typical symptoms are shortness of breath, cough, hemoptysis, and in particularly severe cases - high fever and chest pain
- peripheral cancer .It develops thicker lung tissue.Symptoms completely absent, so it is always detected by chance during the development of complications or the survey.Does not prove itself, the cancer may be very large.Often such patients, referring to the absence of symptoms, refuse treatment
- Cancer apex is a type of peripheral cancer.This new formation is characterized by germination in the nerves and blood vessels of the shoulder girdle.In most cases, these patients sufficiently long period of time are treated by a physician or a neurologist diagnosed with osteochondrosis or plexitis and fall to the oncologist with the already very advanced stages of the disease
- Void Form cancer (in the center of the tumor is a cavity) is also a kind of peripheral lung cancer.The appearance in the tumor cavity occurs as a result of the collapse of the central part of the tumor, which comes from - the lack of food in the process of growth.Abdominal tumors can reach ten centimeters or more and they are very easily confused with other inflammatory processes - cysts pulmonary tuberculosis with decay, abscesses.These misconceptions often lead to the fact that, due to the wrong diagnosis, the cancer continues to progress smoothly without receiving proper treatment
- Pnevmoniepodobny cancer .As symptoms very similar to pneumonia, so patients long enough to receive treatment by a physician, and only after an absence of effects after treatment with antibiotics has been suggested the presence of a cancerous tumor.Pnevmoniepodobny cancer differs rapid growth and takes one / several lung lobes
- Atypical forms of lung cancer (brain, bone, liver, etc.) Are associated with symptoms of metastasis, not the malignant lung tumor.For a typical form of brain stroke clinic (there are loss of consciousness, impaired speech, on the opposite side of the lesion stops working arm and leg, possible seizure phenomena, double vision and headaches).Bone form of cancer is characterized by pain in the spine, pelvis and limb bones;quite often there are spontaneous fractures.Hepatic form is manifested by changes in the blood, jaundice, heaviness in the right upper quadrant, and an increase in liver
- Metastatic tumors are dropping out of the primary tumor of any - any other authority (the second lung, prostate, colon, breast, etc..) and have the structure of the original tumor, and the ability to increase, thereby disrupting proper functioning of the organ.Sometimes metastases reach a very large size (ten or more centimeters), which can lead to the death of patients with disorders of the internal organs (respiratory and liver failure, increased intracranial pressure and so forth.) As a result of poisoning or waste products of the tumor.The most frequently arise from metastasized tumors second lung, breast and bowel, due to the specific circulatory organ (highly developed and very fine vasculature, tumor cells from the blood flow in it to settle and start to grow over time to form colonies - metastases).Malignant tumor of any body can metastasize to the lungs
Lung cancer - types
Lung cancer is divided into two types (depending on the cell type): small cell and non-small cell.
cell lung cancer (less common) is a very aggressive neoplasm, as could quickly spread throughout the body metastasizing to other organs.Usually small cell lung cancer found in smokers, and the time of diagnosis, 60% of patients have widespread metastasis.
non-small cell easily observed more often, relatively slow growing and are divided into three types: large cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (grows slowly and develops from the squamous cells) and adenocarcinoma (evolving from producing mucus cells)
Lung Cancer -stage
Based on the degree of damage to the surrounding tissue cancer of lung and other organs, distinguish four stages of lung cancer.
Stage 1 .Malignant tumor is small and it does not spread to the lymph nodes.This stage is divided into Figures 1A and 1B.At stage 1A tumors reached no more than three centimeters in largest diameter.At this stage of cancer, the survival rate over five years is about 40% with small cell carcinoma and from 55 - 75% with non-small cell.When Step 1B tumor has from three to five centimeters in longest diameter, without spreading to other areas of the body and in the lymph nodes.At this stage, the cancer survival rate over five years is about 20% with small cell carcinoma and 45 - 60% with non-small cell
Stage 2 .Also divided into 2A and 2B.When the tumor reaches Step 2A of five to seven centimeters in longest diameter, with no spread to lymph nodes;or is less than five centimeters in diameter, and the light hitting closest to the lymph nodes.At this stage, the cancer survival rate over five years is about 40% with small cell carcinoma and 35 - 45% with non-small cell.At stage 2B tumor diameter reaches seven centimeters, it does not spread to the lymph nodes;or it reaches a diameter of five centimeters, with germinating the next lymph nodes.At this stage, the survival rate over five years is about 20% with small cell carcinoma and 25 - 35% with non-small cell
Stage 3 .Divided into 3A and 3B.In step 3A tumor reaches more than seven centimeters in diameter and extends to the next formation (diaphragm, pleura, and so on.), And lymph nodes.In addition, the tumor can spread to the lymph nodes located near the heart.At this stage, the survival rate over five years is 15% for small cell carcinoma and 20 - 25% with non-small cell.At stage 3B tumor spreads to the opposite lung damage lymph nodes in the chest, the diaphragm, in the middle of the chest and on the lining of the heart.At this stage, the survival rate over five years is 10% for small cell carcinoma and from 6 to 10% for non-small cell
stage 4 .At this stage of the lung cancer tumor metastasizes to other organs.At this stage, the survival rate over five years is 1% with small cell carcinoma, and 2 to 15% for non-small cell
Lung cancer - diagnosis
diagnosis of malignancy is quite a challenge, because the tumor often can masqueradeother pulmonary diseases (tuberculosis, abscesses, pneumonia).That is why more than fifty percent of lung tumors are detected already inoperable (running) stages.At the beginning of the development of the tumor does not manifest itself and can be detected only by chance, or the development of complications.In order to timely diagnosis of the disease is shown to all the people at least once a year the passage of X-ray examination of the lungs.
In case of suspicion of lung cancer, the following survey:
- Fluorography and radiography
- Layered X-ray tomography to arouse suspicion lung portion
- pursued with intravenous contrast magnetic - resonance or CT scan of the chest
- Bronchoscopy.This method is used to detect tumors of the bronchial tree
- Sputum examination and tumor markers
- thoracoscopy and biopsy
Due to the absence at present a universal method of examination, which would allow 100% distinguish lung cancer from other diseases, carried allThe above-mentioned set of surveys.If the diagnosis remains unclear, even after due diligence, to prevent passage of a malignant tumor, shown holding a diagnostic operation
Lung cancer - treatment
The treatment of lung cancer depends on the type of cancer (small cell / non-small cell), stage of disease progression andgeneral state of the patient.For the treatment of this cancer are three main methods that may be used individually or in combination: surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.However, the basic method, which gives hope for a cure is surgery.
Surgical treatment of lung cancer , depending on the extent of the cancer, is holding a surgery to remove the tumor, share / the whole lung.Generally, surgical treatment is carried out at non-small cell becausesmall cell, from - for more aggressive flow require other treatments (chemotherapy, radiotherapy).In addition, the operation is not recommended in cases where there are serious comorbidities, tumor affects the trachea, or spread to other organs.