Breast cancer - the most common malignancy in women, which causes the greatest concern and is characterized by the ability to actively and quite aggressive metastatic growth.In the world are diagnosed each year about one million new cases of the disease, and every year from it kills about half a million women (much more than any of the - any other type of cancer).Breast cancer is the most common cause of death among single women in the age range from 35 to 55 years.The probability of this ill oncology is 1:12, but some groups of women, it increases significantly
Breast cancer - causes of
emergence and subsequent development of breast cancer by the following factors:
- Hormonal factors →As a result of different observations and studies have clearly established that between the development of breast cancer and levels of sex hormones (estrogen), there is a direct relationship.This assertion is based on the fact that breast cancer cells contain estrogen receptors caused
addition, a very important factor which determines the risk of a woman developing breast cancer, is the so-called "hormonal history".In case if a woman menstruation began at a very young age and / or menopause much later, there is a much greater risk of developing the tumors due to the fact that her body is subject to significant fluctuations in estrogen (associated with the menstrual cycle), compared with the average period overa much longer period of time.The same can be treated as a childless woman, and gave birth to their first child at a very late age.Several children, early childbearing and breastfeeding significantly reduces the risk of developing this disease, due to the fact that significantly increases free menstrual cycles period.
There is a widespread opinion that first appeared some forms of contraceptive pills also affect the occurrence of breast cancer.Preparations started later combined with another hormone (progesterone), contain much lower doses of estrogen, so their impact on the possible development of the disease is considered very low.Hormone replacement therapy is carried out to eliminate the effects of menopause and fill hubbub estrogen in postmenopausal period is a fairly small risk.The so-called "hormonal explosion" leading abortion, so they decided to also refer to provoke the development of tumors factors
- → Age With age, the likelihood of developing breast cancer increases significantly.In women younger than 20 years, he is very rare, but since the 35th age, there is a sharp leap of morbidity and 85 or more years, it is 300 cases per 100,000 women
- nutritional factors → cancerous lesions of the breast is a diseaseWestern industrialized countries, since over 50% of breast cancer in the world is registered in Europe and North America.In this regard, there are reasonable grounds to suggest a connection between the characteristic for these countries the realities of life and the development of cancer of the breast.
direct relationship between cancer and food rations have been identified, but there is good reason to believe that the use of animal fats in large quantities (with dairy products and meat), and as a consequence a significant increase in circulating in the body levels of estrogen may contribute to the developmentthis neoplasm.Differing obesity people of - the fact that a significant part of their diet are animal fats, are at much higher risk of developing this cancer
- Genetic factors → Under the influence of genetic factors in some women seriously increases the likelihood of developing breast cancer.Women who have one / more immediate relatives (sister / mother) breast cancer patients are at slightly greater risk;if cancerous lesions from relative developed post-menopausal, and all the more so if this cancer is covered both breasts, the risk increases slightly
- Other factors → If a woman last seen benign breast disease (cysts, benign tumors, mastitis), it is subject to a much higher risk of cancer in the body.Data that would indicate that the cancer of this localization cause any - any damage to the breast (hitting, compression, etc.). No.It also causes the development of cancer of the breast include: frequent / prolonged chest X-ray conducted in tuberculosis or inflammatory diseases of the lungs;radiation exposure conducted in other diseases (cancer of the lymphatic system and lungs)
- metabolic and endocrine disorders → Metabolic cider, obesity, diabetes, diseases of the pancreas and liver, chronic hypertension, immune deficiency, atherosclerosis
- nonspecificcarcinogenic factors → unbalanced high-calorie diet (lean protein and rich in carbohydrates), smoking, work is not in accordance with biorhythms, ionizing radiation, chemical poisons
Breast Cancer - Symptoms
In the early stages of development, this malignancyalmost does not manifest itself only to palpation in breast tissue can detect extraneous tight formation.
most typical and common form of breast cancer is the nodular form, which is characterized by the presence of dense knots of 5 mm to 5 cm or more.All of the following signs of breast cancer are characteristic of this form.
Brigandine, rozhistopodobnaya mastitopodobnaya and characterized by an extremely aggressive form of lightning growth, while the tumor has no clear boundaries and diverges across the breast and skin.For rozhistopodobnoy mastitopodobnoy and forms a clear characteristic symptoms of inflammatory reaction: fever up to 39 degrees, bright - red color of the skin of the breast and its tenderness.On the basis of these symptoms often occur diagnostic errors and patients receiving treatment for inflammatory diseases, who gave the name of the data forms of breast cancer.A tank type of cancer as the "cake" covers the mammary gland, while pulling and reducing it in size.
the presence of small breast tumors, which - absent any symptoms.The most attentive to the health of women, may find yourself in the gland tumor node palpation (in a large breast is extremely difficult to do).If the bundle is flat, round and painful when pressed - a benign tumor.The signs of malignancy include: the touch unit is stationary or inclined to a slight displacement of its surface is uneven, it fits like a stone, often painless, can be up to three or more (sometimes up to fifteen) centimeters.Also, when malignancy is observed retraction of the skin above the tumor, she's going to wrinkles and folds (symptom of "lemon peel"), there may be a direct germination growths on the skin surface (a surface sprouted tumor component can fester and bleed).
the part of the axillary lymph nodes may include the following symptoms: if they are painless, mobile, or even slightly increased - should not be afraid;if the nodes are defined as dense and large, and sometimes merging with each other - should be alarmed, because it speaks of a metastatic lesion.
In some cases, the part of the tumor may be swelling of the hands, suggesting-advanced far from the stage of the cancer, as occurs when metastatic axillary lymph nodes (from the upper limbs blocked the outflow of lymph fluid and blood, developing lymphedema)
In order to detect the early stages of the development of pathological tumor, it is important to carry out some of the techniques of self as a possibility (and sometimes the desire) to apply for the preventive diagnosis in specialized medical institutions do not always have.The more often a woman will examine the breast, the faster it can be noted the appearance in it of different changes.
Methods BSE :
- The estimation of visual changes in the body.To do this, stand in front of a mirror and compare the symmetry of the glands in color, size, contour, color and size of the nipple.
- The next point is the feeling.Must both hands on each side alternately downwards crush mammary gland, and then paying attention to the armpits.In case of pain, retractions of the skin, nodules or tumors - should immediately seek medical attention.It is recommended to conduct self-examination at least once a month
stage breast cancer
There are 4 stages of breast cancer, each of which is divided into A and B
Stage 1 → The tumor is less than twocentimeters in diameter and not captures lymph nodes in the axilla.Environmental gland tissue, cancer cells are not affected, metastasis was observed.For five years, the survival rate 75 90%
Stage 2 → Dimensions tumor stage 2A range from two to five centimeters and the lymph nodes are not affected or the tumor reaches less than two centimeters with metastases in no more than four lymph nodes.Phase 2B is characterized by the appearance of metastases in the axillary lymph nodes, possible infiltration of intrathoracic metastases parasternal lymph nodes.For five years, the survival rate 73 - 85%
Stage 3 → If Step 3A tumor than five centimeters in diameter, germinate in the lymph nodes and muscle layer under the breast (there may be discharge from the nipple, its extension, swelling and ulcerationskin cancer).Regional metastases absent.Step 3B characterized by the presence of multiple metastases in the axillary lymph nodes, and / or single metastases supraclavicular nodes.For five years, the survival rate of 40 - 57%
stage 4 → In its tumor size may be different, thus affecting the entire breast and metastasizing to other organs and tissues.For five years, the survival rate of less than 1%
Tubular, rozhistopodobnye and mastitopodobnye forms of breast cancer from the moment of their appearance include at least the third stage of the cancer.In these forms of cancer as well as breast cancer 4 degrees, survival is less than 10%, and of ill-five years does not live no
of breast cancer
After finding in breast cancer, the first thingX-ray examination is carried out of the breast (mammography).An alternative to mammography (for women up to 45 years) is the ultrasound.When this study is possible to detect minimal changes in the tissues of the prostate and for certain radiological signs of their classification (identification of malignant or benign neoplasms detected).
The next step is the detection of tumor pathology biopsy of the tumor - for further examination under a microscope with a fine needle take a small piece of tissue of interest.After a biopsy is already possible to speak more accurately the nature of the tumor, but the most accurate answer can only be obtained after surgical removal of the tumor site.
In some cases, it is shown holding Ductography - after entering into the ducts of the breast X-ray contrast agent, an X-ray done.This research is used to identify a benign tumor of the milk ducts - intraductal papillomas, which can manifest itself bloody discharge from the nipple, often degenerating into cancer.
If confirmed cancer or only suspected it, shown holding the minimum necessary research: to identify metastases carried ultrasound axillary lymph nodes;in order to exclude the presence of distant metastatic lesions distant organs, performed abdominal ultrasound and X-rays of the chest tap hole.
In some cases, shows the use of tumor markers - blood tests carried out on the proteins that are absent in a healthy body and are produced exclusively by the tumor.
In case of pathological formations in the breast, it is recommended immediately consult a doctor - oncologist.All women who have reached fifty years (or after menopause), for the detection of malignant tumors in the early stages, it is necessary to perform routine annual mammograms
Treating Breast Cancer
breast cancer, of all solid malignancies best lends itselftreatment.The main method of treatment of this cancer is surgical, in which the tumor is removed the affected organ.Carrying out any other treatment provides only temporary supporting effect
methods of treating breast cancer :
virtually all women who suffer from breast cancer, shown holding a surgical operation to remove the cancer.More recently, the operation was a complete radical mastectomy (complete removal of the breast glands in the armpit and the muscles on the chest wall).Removing such an extensive area was made due to the fact that when you remove just one small tumors remain invisible pockets of cancer cells, resulting in a short time to relapse of the disease.That is why the elimination of all cancer lesions was used exclusively radical mastectomy.
Currently, the need for such radical interference occurs infrequently as to get rid of the remaining after surgery cancer cells can resort to hormone therapy, chemotherapy and radiotherapy.The survival rates in women with a radical mastectomy, and those women who underwent less radical surgery - are
This method of treatment as a result of various factors is most appropriate.Mastectomy is performed with the defeat of the nipple or the area located directly beneath it, and if a woman has a small breast and in her there is a large tumor.Today, in most cases, this operation is represented by a simple mastectomy (breast tissue is removed) or modified radical mastectomy (along with the breast tissue is removed the small muscles of the chest).In the case of the existing risk of cancer recurrence, these surgery combined with radiotherapy.During such an operation often removed and the lymph glands located in the axilla
This surgery is to remove the swelling in the mammary gland and its surrounding tissues.This involves issechenie least amount of breast tissue of all these operations, after healing of the chest makes the look more satisfactory (for women this factor has a strong psychological significance).