Malignant tumors

Rectal cancer

Rectal cancer

rectal cancer photos Rectal cancer - malignant neoplasm form in the tissues of the rectum, developing from its inner lining (epithelium).Most often the disease occurs in the elderly.The resulting swelling can fill the entire lumen rectum and just hit her wall.It is also the new formation is called colorectal cancer

Rectal cancer - causes of

Causes of this malignancy today until the end and have not been studied.There are suggestions that the colon cancer can develop due to chronic inflammatory diseases such as chronic anal fissures, ulcerative colitis and proctitis.The development of cancer an important role for genetic factors: family diffuse polyposis, family history of cancer of the rectum and colon, and so on. To diffuse polyposis characterized by the development of tens and even hundreds of benign tumors (polyps) in the mucous membrane of the rectum and colon, most of which are due togenetic mutation (inherited) quickly degenerate into cancer.Development of rectal cancer may contribute

to particular food: deficiency in the diet of vegetables and cereals, meat, and excess fatty foods, which leads to violations of the chair in the form of constipation, which in turn contribute to the irritation of the colon and rectum toxic products.Excess weight, lack of physical activity and excessive food, can serve as a trigger for the development of a tumor of the intestine.In addition, a direct link has been established to excessive smoking and a significant increase in the risk of cancer of the digestive system.It is a confirmation of the sharp decline in the number of sick people among vegetarians.An important factor in the development of cancer is an occupational factor: increased risk of cancer in workers sawmills, asbestos industries and other professions associated with harmful production.Also, the causes of colon cancer include infection with human papillomavirus and passion for anal sex (passive homosexuals are at high risk)

Rectal cancer - symptoms

Symptoms of colon cancer are divided into the following groups:

nonspecific symptoms

nonspecific symptoms include: a slight increase in body temperature (about 37 degrees C), decreased appetite or aversion to food, weight loss, weakness, a significant distortion of smell and taste

Characteristic symptoms

- basicsymptom is a selection in the act of defecation pathological impurities, that is characteristic of all types of tumors of the rectum, it can be mucus in large or moderate amounts, mucus mixed with blood and / or pus, bleeding, may be released small pieces of tumor.Quite often, in the presence of bleeding from the rectum people suffering for a sufficiently long period of time increases hemorrhoids, do not apply to the doctor, regarding the allocation of blood symptoms of hemorrhoids.To identify the source of bleeding is necessary to know what hemorrhoids blood appears in the stool at the end of the act of defecation, and in tumors due to injury neoplasms feces, blood completely mixed with feces

- Cal becomes ribbon-like (changing its shape)

- palpitationspainful urge to defecate

- In the rectum there is a feeling of a foreign body, which is caused by a tumor

- As a result of tumor invasion serous (outer) membrane of the rectum, which is rich in nerve endings, there are smack in the perineum, coccyx, sacrum and lower back pain.Besides pain may occur as a result of the inflammatory lesions surrounding the tumor organs and tissues

- When neoplastic lesions of the upper rectum observed chronic constipation (frequency from one to seven days or more), accompanied by aching dull pain in the abdomen, bloating and heaviness instomach.Older people present symptoms often do not pay any attention, attributing it to the age of progressive intestinal atony and reduced activity of digestive glands (pancreatic enzymes and bile)

- In the initial parts of the rectum or the anus formed visually (often by the patient) definedtumor.During germination of a tumor of the muscles that squeeze the anus, can be seen urinary and fecal gas.When tumor invasion myshts urethra and pelvic floor, there is incontinence

Symptoms far-gone process

- there is a constant strong pain below the belly

- In the case of tumor invasion of the bladder and the formation of fistulous between the lumen of the vagina or bladderand rectum when urinating, or even alone, in women there is vaginal discharge feces.As a consequence, developing cystitis, a chronic inflammation of the female genital organs.Often, the inflammatory process is raised by the ureters into the kidneys

- In the case of tumor invasion of the bladder wall, with defecation or at rest may be a discharge from the rectum urine 1rak rectum photo

Rectal cancer - stage

Ifbiopsy showed the presence of a cancer patient education, for the selection of the optimal treatment option your doctor needs to know how much was in the spread of the disease.Staging depends on how much the spread cancerous lesions, whether struck by other organs and whether the tumor has penetrated into the surrounding tissue.

Stage 0 (intraepithelial carcinoma) → is found exclusively in the interior of the line / colon

→ Stage 1 The tumor is not growing beyond the mucosa and occupies about 30% of cancer, metastases absent.The five-year survival rate of about 80%

→ Stage 2 At stage 2A, the tumor reaches 5 centimeters and grows deeper, going beyond the rectum, while not affecting the lymph nodes;at stage 2B neoplasm of less than five centimeters, but the lymph nodes are affected.The five-year survival rate of about 60%

→ Stage 3 Cancer is more than half the circumference of the rectum and affects nearby lymph nodes but not to other organs of the body affected.The five-year survival rate of 10-20%

→ Stage 4 The cancer grows in the coming affects the lymph nodes and adjacent organs (pelvic bones, urethra, vagina and uterus).There may be a lung or liver.Five years of not living one

Like any other malignancy, colon cancer metastasizes to other organs.In addition to the cancer in the rectum may develop such cancers as melanoma and sarcoma stage colon cancer photos

Rectal cancer - diagnosis

The first suspected case of a human malignant tumors of the rectum is necessary to conduct the following methods of surveys:

- A very important method is the digital examination of the rectum.In this simple way, an experienced doctor is able to detect a tumor that is located at a distance of up to fifteen centimeters from the anus.With this method you can determine the size of the tumor, the degree of overlap of its lumen of the rectum, to which one wall of the intestine it is, the involvement of other organs (vagina, the pelvic soft tissues and others.).The survey is carried out with the patient complaining of pain in the rectum, or the violation of a chair and / or defecation.The technique of digital examination: The patient lies on his left side, pulling the legs to the abdomen, the doctor inserts into the anus finger and begins to study the inner relief of the rectum

- A special apparatus is a sigmoidoscopy.This unit, the doctor inserts into the rectum to a depth of up to fifty centimeters, and with the help of visually inspecting the rectum and, if necessary, take pieces from suspicious areas of tissue for examination.This procedure is very unpleasant and painful enough, but in cases of suspected cancerous lesions of the rectum, it is absolutely necessary

- endoscopic techniques (fibrocolonoscopy) allows you to carry out an internal examination of the mucous membrane of the entire colon and is probably the most reliable and effective method of study.It allows to identify the exact location of the malignant tumor removed without incisions small tumors (only benign - polyps) and taken for further microscopic examination of tissue pieces

- proven over the years by a barium enema, which is administered to the colon by enema contrast fluid, followed byX-ray images as directed, and after a bowel movement.This method is used in the elderly and debilitated patients with suspected presence of multiple tumors, as well as to detect cancers in other parts of the intestine

- If you suspect that the germination of cancer of the bladder and ureters used intravenous urography

- pelvic ultrasound and abdominalcavity is used to detect metastases in nearby lymph nodes and other organs.If the abdominal cavity there is free fluid (ascites), the ultrasound helps determine its quantity

- Computed tomography of the pelvis and the abdomen is performed to detect germination cancer to other organs, to determine the extent of the tumor, presence of metastases in other organs of the abdominal cavitynearby lymph nodes, the presence of a fistula between the bodies which come feces and urine

- Held laparoscopy (surgery).In a specially made punctures in the abdominal wall, for inspection of various organs and parts of the abdomen, entered the camera.Conducting this survey is carried out in suspected rampant spread to the liver and peritoneum

- conducted tumor markers.The study of blood proteins that are absent in a healthy body and are produced exclusively malignancy Diagnosis of colorectal cancer photos

Rectal cancer - treatment

in the treatment of colorectal cancer is a priority surgical technique that involves the removal of a tumor of the affected organ.

Possible surgical treatment of rectal cancer:

- organ-option (resection of the rectum).This operation is only possible if the tumor is located in the middle and upper parts of the rectum

- Held the complete removal of the rectum (resection with bringing down the anal canal of the colon), followed by the formation of an "artificial" rectum of lying above the normal departments

Other possible surgical interventions have one thing in common - an artificial anus (colostomy), which is displayed on the patient's abdomen:

- removed a tumor the entire rectum, surrounding tissue and nearby lymph nodes, anal sphincter is not stored on the abdomen is displayed colostomy

-removed the tumor (Hartmann operation) with the output tight suturing of the rectum (anus) and elimination of a colostomy.This surgery apply to elderly and / or debilitated patients, or patients with intestinal obstruction

- At the fourth stage of the tumor process to remove an intestinal obstruction, a colostomy is displayed without removing the tumor.It is used only for the purpose of minor life extension

- Carrying out a combined surgery: involves the removal of the rectum, complete or partial removal of other organs (during germination of the tumor) and single liver metastases

In addition, for the treatment of rectal tumors successfullyused radiation therapy, which is radiation exposure at low doses in a special unit carried out daily for a month and a detrimental effect on the tumor cells.This therapy is applicable both prior to surgery to shrink a tumor before operable state, and after the operation in detecting metastatic lymph nodes nearest to prevent disease recurrence.It may be used as the external exposure and internal (inserted into the rectum a sensor), or a combination thereof.It is proved that internal exposure is far less detrimental impact on the surrounding organs and tissues, damaging them to a lesser extent.

If a patient has contraindications to surgery in the rectum, or by the elderly person, radiation therapy is used as an independent method of treatment, which is definitely inferior to surgery, but still provides fairly good results.Sometimes in severe pain and inflammatory manifestations, if you can not remove the tumor, to facilitate the life of the patient and to relieve painful symptoms shows the use of small doses of radiation.

In case of a large number of metastases in the surrounding lymph nodes rectum require mandatory chemotherapy.It is also used in the identification of multiple metastases in other organs, which can not be surgically removed.Chemotherapy is the intravenous administration of various synthetic toxic substances that are damaging effects on the cells of cancer.In some cases, it shows the assignment of these same preparations, but in tablet form (they are better absorbed, fewer side effects).Chemotherapy is used to reduce the size of metastases, removal of painful symptoms and prolong life.

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